2012/03/28

Statue of Isis, Mother of Tuthmosis the Third

Statue of Isis, Mother of Tuthmosis the Third




Queen Isis was a secondary wife of Tuthmosis the Second and the mother of Tuthmosis the Third.

After his father's death, King Tuthmosis the Third honored his mother by making this statue identifying the queen with the mother goddess Isis. He also gave her the epithets reserved for the great royal wives on the base of this statue.

It should be noted that the name of the god Amun was re-inscribed after it had been erased during the Amarna period

The Granite Sphinx of Queen Hatshepsut

The Granite Sphinx of Queen Hatshepsut




The sphinx of Queen Hatshepsut is carved in a fairly classical pose. The front legs extend forward and the tail curls around the right hind leg.

This sphinx is a portrait of Hatshepsut with the elegant feminine features of all her statues: almond-shaped eyes under arched brows, a fine aquiline or hooked nose, and a small smiling mouth.

Writing on the chest reads, "Maatkare, Beloved of Amun, may life be given forever."

The Queen Hatshepsut Offering to Osiris

The Queen Hatshepsut Offering to Osiris



On this flake, the artist intended to show respect for the queen's majesty and drew her as a masculine figure, kneeling and wearing the Khepresh helmet-like crown of ceremonies. She is offering two jars of wine and cool water to the god Osiris of the underworld (not shown).

The queen wears a collar and a short kilt fastened with a belt. The text refers to "Maat-Ka-Ra (the throne name of Hatshepsut) beloved of Osiris," and "offering wine and cool water". The drawing is brightly colored and the primarily red sketch lines, and some corrections in the proportions are shown.

Head of Queen Hatshepsut

Head of Queen Hatshepsut



Queen Hatshepsut is the most famous female ruler of ancient Egypt.

This head, which is one of the masterpieces of Eighteenth Dynasty sculpture, is part of a statue that once represented the queen in the shape of the god Osiris.

The head, made out of painted limestone, bears all her distinctive feminine features: the gently curved eyebrows, the wide eyes extended by cosmetic lines, the delicate aquiline nose, the full cheeks, and the gracious mouth.

The Standing Statue of Hatshepsut

The Standing Statue of Hatshepsut




Queen Hatshepsut is portrayed standing in a prayful pose with her left leg forward. Her feminine features are obvious in her big eyes, plump cheeks, and small mouth. 

She wears the Nemes headdress with a uraeus, or royal cobra, and the Shendyt kilt so that she would be accepted by the Egyptians, whose traditions demanded a male ruler.

The queen stands on the nine bows, thus, portraying her control over foreign countries. Her name and titles are inscribed on the base as "The king of Upper and Lower Egypt, Maat-ka-Re, may she live forever."

Queen Hatshepsut ruled Egypt for about 20 prosperous and peaceful years. The statue was destroyed into many parts in the time of her successor, King Tuthmosis the Third. It was restored in modern times.

The Limestone Sphinx of Queen Hatshepsut

The Limestone  Sphinx of Queen Hatshepsut



Hatshepsut ruled as a man, not as a woman, and for this reason her royal protocols and titles are always written without the feminine qualification, which is the "T" letter in the hieroglyphic. This is the case in the text inscribed on the base of this sphinx where it is written, "Beloved of the god Amun, endowed with life forever."

In spite of her typical representation as a man, she is shown here with feminine facial features, especially in the full cheeks and lips. However, she has a long false beard like all male pharaohs. The name Hatshepsut is inscribed on the royal cartouche between the forelegs of the sphinx. The body is painted yellow except for the mane. The false beard and the ears are painted blue.

This sphinx of Queen Hatshepsut is somewhat different from the traditional Egyptian sphinx, which was a human head with a lion's body. This sphinx has a human face, a lion's head with mane and ears, and a lion's body. It is made in the same style as the sphinxes of the Middle Kingdom found in Tanis, which have Asiatic features. This sphinx, however, has the beautiful features of Queen Hatshepsut.

2012/03/27

The Statue of Khonsu, God of the Moon

The Statue of Khonsu, God of the Moon



This statue represents the god of the moon, Khonsu, son of Amun-Re and Mut. He is holding the composite scepter, the insignia of kingship that symbolized prosperity and stability.

This statue shows Khonsu as a youth with the side lock of hair. Khonsu's facial features resemble those of Tutankhamun. This statue also identifies Khonsu with Ptah. This might explain why there are scenes of the worship of Ptah inside the Chapel of Khonsu in the great open court of the Temple of Amun at Karnak.

The Statue of Horemheb

The Statue of Horemheb





This statue represents a male figure, most probably King Horemheb, the last king of the Eighteenth Dynasty.

He is shown striding forward, wearing a short kilt and the Blue Crown of war ornamented with a uraeus, or royal cobra. The king's left arm is by his side; the right hand holds a standard. The upper part of the standard is missing, which prevents the identification of the deity that was depicted upon it.

The statue bears no inscription, which would have allowed identification of this king. However, the lean body, almond eyes, small straight lips and the median line bisecting the torso, suggest that the statue represents King Horemheb. The artistic style is that of the Eighteenth Dynasty, prior to the time of King Amenhotep the Third.

Group Statue of Ramesses The Third with Horus and Seth

Group Statue of Ramesses The Third with Horus and Seth



The group represents King Ramesses the Third, the god Horus and the god Seth. The three statues are standing and are all approximately the same height. The statue of the king is between the other two, which are represented in profile.

Ramesses the Third is wearing the white crown of Upper Egypt with the royal cobra on the front, a wide collar of many rows, and the royal pleated kilt, the shendyt, with a long belt hanging down to the bottom of it. He is holding the ankh sign of life in his right hand and the roll of power in his left hand. His left leg is forward.

The statues of the gods, Horus and Seth, are in the same posture with the left leg forward; they are each holding the ankh, and wearing the Egyptian pectoral and the shendyt kilt. Each god has placed one hand on the crown of the king, performing the Coronation of Ramesses the Third.

The Two Bracelets of Ramesses The Great

The Two Bracelets of Ramesses the Second


They were made from Gold and Lapis Lazuli . A pair of rigid gold bracelets, each composed of two parts linked by a hinge.

The fine decoration is executed by the granulation technique and consists mostly of geometric motifs. The bezel is composed of a goose, which has two heads turned backwards over the body, carved out of one piece of lapis lazuli.

The fact that the cartouches of Ramesses the Second and the words for right and left are incised alongside the clasps of the bracelets, suggests that both of these bracelets were the actual ones worn by the king himself.

The Excavating the Tomb of Tutankahmun


The tomb of Tutankhamun, which is today designated as KV 62, was number 4.33 in Howard Carter's sequence of discoveries since 1915. It did not take Lord Carnarvon and Carter long to appreciate the enormity of the discovery and its implications. While Arthur Callender, a close friend of Carter, had been helping him, more assistance in clearing the tomb would certainly be needed. When, soon after the discovery, Albert Lythgoe, then Curator of the Metropolitan Museum's Egyptian Department, cabled his congratulations and offered help, Carter took him at his word, responding:

"Thanks message [of congratulations]. Discovery colossal and need every assistance. Could you consider load of Burton in recording in time being? Costs to us. Immediately reply would oblige. Every regard, Carter, Continental, Cairo."

Close ties had already existed between Carter, Carnarvon and the Metropolitan Museum, and so Carter was granted his request. In due course, the Metropolitan Museum's generosity would be rewarded when Carter helped them acquire the Carnarvon collection.

However, within a matter of days, Carter received other offers of help. On December 9th Alfred Lucas, a chemist with the Egyptian Government, came forward. With him aboard, the clearance of Tutankhamun's tomb seems to have been the first ever archaeological expedition to have its own resident chemist.

Then on December 12th Arthur Mace, an Egyptologist with the Metropolitan Expedition, was also put at Carter's disposal. Six days later, James Breasted, Director of the Oriental Institute in Chicago arrived to begin work on the seal impressions which covered the plastered blockings. The Metropolitan team also provided him with Hauser and Hall, two architects who began work on drawing a plan of the objects in situ. Then, on January 3rd, Alan Gardiner, a British philologist, arrived to start work on the inscriptions.

Others would eventually join the team, including Percy Newberry, another of Carter's old friends. It became a showpiece of academic cooperation that would in time also draw in Douglas Derry of the Cairo Anatomy School, and Seleh Bey Hamdi of Alexandria to conduct the postmortem examination of the mummy, Battiscombe Gunn to work on the ostraca for the final publication, L. A. Boodle, a botanist from Kew Gardens, James R. Ogden, a Harrogate jeweler to report on aspects of the gold work, Alexander Scott and H. J. Plenderleith of the British Museum for analytical assistance, G. F. Hulme of the Geological Survey of Egypt, and others.





Part of the reason that there was so much politics surrounding the discovery and excavation of the tomb of Tutankhamun was that Howard Carter was a very advanced excavator for his time. It is said that anyone else would have had the tomb cleared and the objects it contained on display within a month of the tomb's discovery, but it took Carter almost a decade to carefully preserve and remove the treasures to Cairo. The difference shows the caution with which Carter approached this undertaking, which more resembles the efforts of modern excavators.

Of course, most of the political challenges came in the first two seasons of work, creating distractions and difficulties, but afterwards, Carter and his team settled into a thorough and methodical routine, maintaining complete records for each discovery and working to preserve each antiquity as they were brought out of the tomb. The excavation used the tomb of Ramesses XI (KV4) as a storeroom for supplies and for minor finds from the stairwell and corridor, and later the tomb of Seti II (KV15) was turned into a secure field conservation laboratory and photographic studio. Also, KV55, just across the path from the Tut's tomb, was made into a darkroom for Harry Burton.




Howard Carter established a routine for processing what must have seemed like an endless flow of treasures from the tomb. Each object or group of objects was given a reference number. The main reference numbers ranged from 1 to 620, though there were subdivisions for objects within a numbered group denoted by the use of single or multiple letters (a, b, c, etc). Additional subdivisions were noted by bracketed Arabic numerals. Group no. 620 is anomalous in that it was given subdivisions numbered from 1 to 123. (i.e. 620:1 to 620:123).

After objects in the tomb were provided with reference numbers, photographs were taken of the items in situ with and without the reference number cards. The camera was repositioned several times in order to show every object at least once in one of the shots. A brief description was also provided, as well as a sketch if appropriate, on a numbered record card (by Carter or Mace), and the place of the objects discovery was located on a ground plan of the tomb (prepared by Hall and Hauser). Afterwards, the piece was removed to the laboratory for treatment by Lucas and Mace, where more photographs were made. After the conservation of the object was completed, a further photograph was made. This routine was carried out for many thousands of objects, over several seasons, sometimes in sweltering heat, and under pressure from the press, who were soon complaining about the excessive time the clearance was taking. There was also a constant flow of visitors to the tomb, including some 12,000 at the height of the King Tut hysteria between January 1 and March 15th, 1926.




 

Clearance of the Antechamber was begun on December 27th 1922. It took seven weeks to finish, and used up more than a mile of cotton wadding and 32 bales of calico to secure the objects. Afterwards, and at the end of each successive season, the objects were crated up with extreme care using hundreds of feet of timber, and transported to the Nile river using the human powered Decauville (narrow gauge) railway. Though only a relatively short distance, the train track was not permanent and Carter was given only a meager number of rail-lengths that had to be constantly "leapfrogged", so it took some 15 hours to move the train to the river during the heat of the summer months.

Only the gold coffin and mask were not transported by river. They were conveyed by a train in a special "Service Car" with an armed guard from the Egyptian army. At the end of each season, for security against not only theft but also floods, the tomb entrance was covered over with a watertight wooden blocking erected over a wooden portcullis, and guarded by a local policeman. Carter would later tell us that: "It had been our privilege to find the most important collection of Egyptian antiquities that had ever seen the light, and it was for us to show that we were worthy of the trust."


The Valley of the Kings - Tombs of the Pharaohs

The Valley of the Kings - Tombs of the Pharaohs





 It called also the Valley of the Gates of the Kings .Tt is a valley in Egypt where, for a period of nearly 500 years from the 16th to 11th century BC, tombs were constructed for the Pharaohs and powerful nobles of the New Kingdom (the Eighteenth to the Twentieth Dynasties of Ancient Egypt). The valley stands on the west bank of the Nile, opposite Thebes (modern Luxor), within the heart of the Theban Necropolis. The wadi consists of two valleys, East Valley (where the majority of the royal tombs are situated) and West Valley. 

 

With the 2006 discovery of a new chamber (KV63), and the 2008 discovery of 2 further tomb entrances, the valley is known to contain 63 tombs and chambers (ranging in size from KV54, a simple pit, to KV5, a complex tomb with over 120 chambers). It was the principal burial place of the major royal figures of the Egyptian New Kingdom, together with those of a number of privileged nobles. The royal tombs are decorated with scenes from Egyptian mythology and give clues to the beliefs and funerary rituals of the period. Almost all of the tombs seem to have been opened and robbed in antiquity, but they still give an idea of the opulence and power of the rulers of this time.

This area has been a focus of archaeological and egyptological exploration since the end of the eighteenth century, and its tombs and burials continue to stimulate research and interest. In modern times the valley has become famous for the discovery of the tomb of Tutankhamun (with its rumours of the Curse of the Pharaohs), and is one of the most famous archaeological sites in the world. In 1979, it became a World Heritage Site, along with the rest of the Theban Necropolis. Exploration, excavation and conservation continues in the valley, and a new tourist centre has recently been opened.


The Egyptian belief that "To speak the name of the dead is to make him live again" is certainly carried out in the building of the tombs. The king's formal names and titles are inscribed in his tomb along with his images and statues. Beginning with the 18th Dynasty and ending with the 20th, the kings abandoned the Memphis area and built their tombs in Thebes. Also abandoned were the pyramid style tombs. Most of the tombs were cut into the limestone following a similar pattern: three corridors, an antechamber and a sunken sarcophagus chamber. These catacombs were harder to rob and were more easily concealed. Construction usually lasted six years, beginning with the new reign. The text in the tombs are from the Book of the Dead, the Book of the Gates and the Book of the Underworld. See also a history and overview of the Valley of the Kings.

 
Entry to the Valley of the Kings

Ramesses IV

Three white corridors descend to the sarcophagus chamber in this tomb. The chambers ceilings depict the goddess Nut. The lid of the pink granite sarcophagus is decorated with Isis and Nephthys, which were meant to serve as guardians over the body. Their duties fell short, however, as the tomb was robbed in ancient times. Originally the priests placed the sarcophagus in Amenhotep II's tomb in order to hide the body, which was a common practice.



Ramesses IX

Two sets of steps lead down to the tomb door that is decorated with the Pharaoh worshipping the solar disc. Isis and Nephthys stand behind him on either side. Three corridors lead into an antechamber that opens into a pillared hall. The passage beyond that leads to the sarcophagus chamber.

Merneptah

The steep descent into the tombis typical of the designs of the XIX Dynasty. The entrance is decorated with Isis and Nephthys worshiping the solar disc. Text from the Book of the Gates line the corridors. The outer granite lid of the sarcophagus is located in the antechamber, while the lid of the inner sarcophagus is located down more steps in the pillared hall. Carved on the pink granite lid is the figure of Merneptah as Osiris.

Ramesses VI

Originally built for Ramesses V this tomb has three chambers and a 4th pillared chamber was added by Ramesses VI. Complete texts of the Book of the Gates, the Book of Caverns and the Book of Day and Night line the chambers. Portions of the Book of the Dead are located in the pillared chamber, along with scenes of the sky goddess, Nut.

The Burial Chamber in the Tomb of Ramesses VI

Ramesses III

The tomb is sometimes referred to as the "Harpers Tomb" due to the two harpers playing to the gods in four of the chambers. Ten small chambers branch off of the main corridors. These were for the placement of tomb furniture.


Mortuary Temple of Ramesses III at Medinet Habu


Seti I

The longest tomb in the valley, 100m, contains very well preserved reliefs in all of its eleven chambers and side rooms. One of the back chambers is decorated with the Ritual of the Opening of the Mouth, which stated that the mummy's eating and drinking organs were properly functioning. Believing in the need for these functions in the afterlife, this was a very important ritual. The sarcophagus is now in the Sir John Soane Museum, London.



From the Temple of Seti I at Abydos
Tuthmosis III


The approach to this unusual tomb is an ascent up wooden steps, crossing over a pit, and then a steep descent down into the tomb. The pit was probably dug as a deterrent to tomb robbers. Two small chambers, decorated with stars, and a larger vestibule are in front of the sarcophagus chamber, which is uniquely rounded and decorated with only red and black.

 









Amenhotep II

In this Tomb, a steep flight of stairs and a long unadorned corridor lead to the sarcophagus chamber. Three mummies, Tuthmosis IV, Amenhotep II III and Seti II, were found in one side room and nine mummies were found in another.

Horemheb

This tomb's construction is identical to that of Seti I's with the exception of some of the inner decorations.


Temple


Tutankhamun

Though small and unimpressive, Tutankhamun's Tomb is probably the most famous, due to its late discovery. Howard Carter's description upon opening the tomb in 1922 was, "At first I could see nothing, the hot air escaping from the chamber causing the candle flames to flicker, but presently, as my eyes grew accustomed to the light, details of the room within emerged slowly from the mist, strange animals, statues and gold - everywhere the glint of gold. For the moment - an eternity it must have seemed to the others standing by - I was dumb with amazement, and when Lord Carnarvon, unable to stand the suspense any longer, inquired anxiously, 'Can you see anything?' it was all I could do to get out the words, "Yes, wonderful things.

 

"' The royal seal on the door was found intact. The first three chambers were unadorned, with evidence of early entrance through one of the outside walls. The next chamber contained most of the funerary objects. The sarcophagus was four guilded wooden shrines, one inside the other, within which lay the stone sarcophagus, three mummiform coffins, the inner one being solid gold, and then the mummy. Haste can be seen in the reliefs and the sarcophagus, due to the fact that Tutankhamun died at only 19 years of age following a brief reign. Though extremely impressive to the modern world, the treasures of Tutankhamun must have paled when compared to the tombs of the great Pharaohs that ruled for many years during Egypt's golden age.

 Ancient Egyptian Pharaohs


Additional Tombs: 

18th Dynasty Tombs -19th Dynasty Tombs - 20th Dynasty Tombs :-





KV 12 unknown
KV 41 unknown

KV 20 Hatshepsut
KV 42 Hatshepsut-Meryetre

KV 21 two queens
KV 43 Tuthmosis IV

WV 22 Amenhetep III
KV 44 Anen (?)

WV 23 Ay
KV 45 Userhet

WV 24 unknown
KV 46 Yuya and Thuya

WV 25 Akhenaten (?)
KV 48 Amenemopet

KV 26 unknown
KV 49 Maya (?)

KV 27 unknown
KV 50 animals

KV 28 unknown
KV 51 animals

KV 29 unknown
KV 52 animals

KV 30 unknown
KV 53 unknown

KV 31 unknown
KV 54 ca. Tutankhamen

KV 32 unknown
KV 55 Tiye, Akhenaten or Other

KV 33 ca. Tuthmosis III
KV 56 unknown

KV 34 Tuthmosis III
KV 57 Horemheb

KV 35 Amenhetep II
KV 58 ca. Ay

KV 36 Maiherperi
KV 59 unknown

KV 37 ca. Tuthmosis III
KV 60 two women (Setri In?)

KV 38 Tuthmosis I
KV 61 unknown

KV 39 unknown
KV 62 Tutankhamen

KV 40 unknown






KV 5 Sons of Rameses II
KV 1 Rameses VII

KV 7 Rameses II
KV 2 Rameses IV

KV 8 Merenptah
KV 3 ca. Rameses III

KV 10 Amenmeses
KV 4 Rameses XI

KV 13 Bay
KV 6 Rameses IX

KV 14 Tausert / Setnakht
KV 9 Rameses V / VI

KV 15 Seti II
KV 11 Rameses III

KV 16 Rameses I
KV 18 Rameses X

KV 17 Seti I
KV 19 Mentuherkhepshef

KV 47 Siptah

2012/03/26

The Plan of King Tutankhamun's Tomb

The Annex of Tutankhamun Tomb

The Annex of The Tomb of King Tutankhamun and its Objects

   
On their first day in the tomb, 27 November 1922, Lord Carnarvon and Howard Carter saw the annex through a hole looters. The chaos of this storeroom convinced to delay his game until the rest of the tomb was empty, five years later.

Despite being the smallest of the four rooms in a funerary complex of Tutankhamen, the appendix contains nearly half of the total contents of the tomb. It was stacked with hundreds of reed baskets and pottery jars, containing provisions for the dead king. Royal furniture and the boxes were scattered among developed these ordinary objects.

The Annex of Tutankhamun Tomb


The Annex of Tutankhamun Tomb

The Annex of Tutankhamun Tomb



Footprints and fingerprints were everywhere, some belonging to thieves and other cemetery officials who tried to restore order in the grave. Apparently, the guards were added to the confusion in the appendix by using it as a dumping ground for anything that could not be returned to its rightful place in other rooms. Carter guessed that many of the finest pieces in this simple pantry originally belonged in more formal rooms of the tomb.

The ground was littered with Annex more than three feet below the door, and a complex, almost acrobatic operation was necessary to clear a small working space inside. held by the sling around their chest, archaeologists swung above the threshold to remove the first parts. Even after standing room had been cleared, the objects were still in precarious piles, which were braced to prevent collapse.


When the parasite was last saved and removed from the schedule, while the tomb was empty - except for the mummy of the pharaoh's sarcophagus resting there. It was the spring of 1928, and six and a half years had passed since the workers had discovered the entrance steps. Four years of laboratory work remained before the last treasures of Tutankhamen would leave the Valley of the Kings in 1932.



The Antechamber of Tutankhamun Tomb

The antechamber of the tomb of King Tutankhamun and objects
 
 
At noon, November 27, 1922, the sealed door at the end of the entrance passage had been registered, then demolished. Carnarvon party came in, having to step on the white lotus chalice that was on the threshold. The initial inspection Carter doubts resolved the exact nature of the discovery: this room was certainly the antechamber of the royal tomb. In addition, the random placement of the furniture has indicated that the antechamber had been ransacked by thieves and hastily rearranged by guards.

The Antechamber of Tutankhamun Tomb

Carter was assigned to each object a number of records retention and Comments; photographs of Burton, these inventory numbers appear on small cards. Extent from twenty to six by twelve feet, the hall was the largest room in the tomb. He held a bewildering array of two objects both secular and religious. Three major animal-shaped sofa is aligned west wall. Stacked one above and below them were several royal thrones and stools ordinary wicker. Alabaster vases for precious ointments stood beside common containers oval cooked duck. Flat chests for bows and arrows alternated with boxes and jeweled scepters.



Parts of four tanks were crammed into the southeast corner. The burial party had dismantled the tanks to get them in the narrow entrance corridor. Behind the sofa in the southwest corner was a looter hole in another small room. Carter has decided to delay this room clearing, which he called the Annex, until the rest of the tomb was empty. The real fascination lay with the north wall of the antechamber. There, two life-size statues of the king standing facing each other, keeping a sealed door. As Carter said, "Visions of the room after room, each packed with items such as the one we had seen, crossed our minds and left us breathless." The contents of the antechamber were incredibly confused. 


After robbery old, officials of the necropolis was quickly tried to restore some semblance of order, stuffing items into containers closest at hand. Indeed, those responsible for negligence caused damage almost as that thieves vandalized. Time had taken its toll. Carter described the leather harness tanks as having turned to glue, drop on their wheels, axles and frames. Fabric sheets become dust, and pearls had fallen in a heap of sense after their rotten thread chain.

The smaller objects were removed first, which makes space for the dismantling of large sofas and disentangling of the tanks stripped. It took seven weeks, just to save and delete objects. Years of treatment and study in the field laboratory would be needed before most tracks could leave the Valley of the Kings.
 

 The Antechamber of Tutankhamun Tomb

The Antechamber of Tutankhamun Tomb
The Antechamber of Tutankhamun Tomb
  

 The Antechamber of Tutankhamun Tomb


The Antechamber of Tutankhamun Tomb




The Treasury of Tutankhamun Tomb

The Treasury of The Tomb of King Tutankhamun and its Objects

The Canopic Shrine

Six feet, six inches high, the canopic shrine dominated the treasure. This monument of gilded wood held Tutankhamun's internal organs. Since mummification was essentially a process of drying the body, the parts most likely to decay were first removed by an incision in the side of the body. Tutankhamun's viscera were then placed in four coffins miniature gold, each under the protection of a different goddess Isis - the liver; Nephthys - the lungs; Neith - the stomach; Selket - the intestines. These four goddesses appear two wooden statues that guarded the golden monuments and reliefs on its inner sanctum. The heart was left in place in the body.

Carter first saw the treasure February 17, 1923, but delayed work on it until the next burial chamber was cleared. In the winter of 1926-1927, he emptied the treasury of small objects, it is dismantled to make way for the canopic shrine complex. Removing the canopy of gilded wood and outer walls of the sanctuary revealed the canopic chest, carved from a single block of alabaster. In the coffins were small gold holders of the internal organs of the king.
 

The Treasury of Tutankhamun Tomb



 The Treasury of Tutankhamun Tomb


The statues of the gods

Despite its promise of eternal life, hell was full of dangers that had to be overcome. A variety of gods were called to help the deceased in his precarious journey to the afterlife. The treasure of Tutankhamun's tomb was filled with over fifty images of these deities. Some were carved, according to tradition, like the king himself. Others took the form of sacred animals such as the cobra Netjerankh god.


The Treasury of Tutankhamun TombThe Treasury of Tutankhamun Tomb The Treasury of Tutankhamun Tomb

The boxes and jewelry

An open room adjacent to the burial chamber, the treasury contained mostly funerary equipment - ritual jewelery, model boats for the journey through the underworld, the images of gods, and statues shawabty to do work of the king in the beyond. The large, gilded canopic shrine held Tutankhamun's internal organs.

Although thieves had entered the treasure in ancient times, stole small objects and jewelry, leaving the whole room more or less in its original order. Carter discovered this piece in February 1923, but it looped for three and a half years while releasing the burial chamber of its shrines and coffins.

The Treasury of Tutankhamun Tomb


The Treasury of Tutankhamun Tomb



The Shawabty and Portrait Figures

The Treasury held pictures of Tutankhamen many rituals. many of them were portraits, providing resting places for the mind. Others were shawabtys or replacement workers who were to perform tasks like magic the king in the afterlife. Carter said they found 413 shawabtys, equipped with miniature tools, in the tomb of. Made of wood, stone or clay, these statuettes mummiform artistic quality varied considerably.



The Burial Chamber of Tutankhamun Tomb

 The Burial Chamber of The Tomb of King Tutankhamun and its Objects


The sarcophagus and coffins

In February 1924, after the dismantling of the sanctuaries, the team of Carter lifted the lid of the sarcophagus of quartzite. It was a precarious operation, because the lid, weighing a ton and a quarter, had cracked in half and was repaired at the time of burial. Before you start to open the coffins, however, Carter had to devote a year and a half to finish work on objects already stored in the field laboratory.  Seven feet, four inches long, the outer coffin had two small coffins nested well inside. All three coffins were mummified and covered with a feather design. Their striped caps worn by the vulture and cobra goddesses of Upper and Lower Egypt. The plaited false beard of divinity adorned their chins, and each coffin held in his arms crossed, lacrosse and scepters scourges.

The Burial Chamber of Tutankhamun Tomb 

The Burial Chamber of Tutankhamun Tomb
  
The Burial Chamber of Tutankhamun Tomb

Although the symbolism was similar in each case, different finish. The surface of the outer coffin was modeled in low relief plaster gilded wood, while the coffin of the middle, also wooden, was inlaid with semiprecious stones and colored glass inlay. The third coffin, or internal models were engraved by thin lines on the gold surface. Opening of the coffins was dangerous in the confined space of the burial chamber.  


Complex, the counterweight pulley system was designed to calm the bulky coffins. As the ups and downs of each were separated, both parties had to be removed entirely in the laboratory, or the bottom should be lowered back into the sarcophagus. An unforeseen difficulty was the heaviness of the three coffins and mummies, combined, they weigh over a ton and a half.

The wreaths and garlands adorning the funeral coffins included olive, willow, mandrake, blueberries and blue water lily.   The analysis of the growing seasons of these plants showed that Tutankhamun was buried somewhere between mid-March and late April.
When the coffins were removed, Carter said the case was found lying in the double bottom of the sarcophagus. The container holding the remains of embalming ointments.  

These fragrance oils, poured onto the body at the funeral, had hardened with age and now stuck inside the coffins and the mummy together. Prudent application and long heat and chemicals that eventually softened enough mass to the parties to separate. Cleaning ointments blackened the third coffin solved the mystery of the truck. Inlaid with semiprecious stones, inside the coffin was formed of solid gold one-tenth to one-eighth inch thick.

 
Shrines and Objects

Most of the objects removed from the burial chamber was designed specifically for the last rites and the afterlife. Murals on the walls of the room - the only one in the tomb to be decorated - represented at the funeral ceremony. These paintings, however, could not be seen clearly until the burial chamber was emptied. Once found, the room was filled almost to the ceiling by a huge gilded wooden shrine inlaid with ceramic tiles blue.

The Burial Chamber of Tutankhamun Tomb

The Burial Chamber of Tutankhamun Tomb

The Burial Chamber of Tutankhamun Tomb



Upon entry of the burial chamber 17 February 1923, Carter opened the doors of this sanctuary unsealed. He saw another sanctuary doors were locked and sealed, which proves that the thieves had not reached the mummy inside. In all, four gilded shrines and a pall-draped canopy nested within another, the protection of the sarcophagus. Each sanctuary has taken the form of a traditional Egyptian shrine, covered with bas-reliefs and inscriptions from sacred texts.


Modern scaffolding helped dismantle the fragile sanctuaries. Work began in November 1923 and continued for four months. The sections of wall and roof, some weighing as much as three quarters of a ton, were extremely fragile. Their 2 1/4 inch thick planks of wood had fallen, and their beautiful gilded bas-reliefs were crumbling.


After removing the sanctuaries of the world's sarcophagus, Carter deferred work on them for four years. In 1928, when the rest of the tomb was cleared, he again turned his attention to the sanctuaries. They need two full seasons of treatment to become strong enough to withstand transport to the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.

The gold mask and jewelry


The design of Tutankhamun's mummy was similar to that of his coffins. During his head and his shoulders was a funerary mask with the same patterns used on the three caskets: false beard, hair streaked, and the cobra and vulture goddesses. As the coffin inside, golden mask was inlaid with precious stones and glass on the precious metal. Golden hands, attached to the packaging, has held the leadership of the king and the scourge, while bands of jewels inscribed with prayers set the top layer of bandages.

The Burial Chamber of Tutankhamun Tomb 

The Burial Chamber of Tutankhamun Tomb

The Burial Chamber of Tutankhamun Tomb

The Burial Chamber of Tutankhamun Tomb

The Burial Chamber of Tutankhamun Tomb
 
Exquisite necklaces, scarabs, necklaces and bracelets were carefully placed among the closely woven linen bandages. A total of 143 jewels and amulets were found on the body or in its packaging. On the morning of November 11, 1925, an international team of anatomists and archeologists have begun consideration of the mummy, the operation took eight months. The medical inspection showed that Tutankhamun was five feet six inches tall and died at the age of eighteen or nineteen. No idea has been found to explain his untimely death, but several family members are known to have died while relatively young also.


Oils and perfumes poured over the mummy contained corrosive elements. These same ointments, made in honor Tutankhamun, had burned his remains. After consideration, the mummy was reburied in the outer coffin, and this, in turn, was replaced in the stone sarcophagus. Now, as for 3300 years, Tutankhamun continued to sit in the wings encompassing goddesses carved on his sarcophagus.