2012/05/31

Bracelet from Giza

Bracelet from Giza, made of ten rows of circular beads of glazed faience in several colours, held together by four bead slides.

Bracelet from Giza

2012/05/28

Spread of the ancient Egyptian language and affiliation

Ancient Egyptian language belongs to the Afro-Asiatic family spread since ancient times until the present time; in North Africa and the eastern Mediterranean and western Asia. These groups include speaking languages ​​today; Alkostah such as Berber and North African, Arabic and Hebrew in the Middle East.

 

It is clear that the ancient Egyptian language began to take shape before the development of the African and Asian branches to the total current ... Tehma separate, as they contain remain the words of the ancient Egyptian language; especially those prevailing in the era of the modern state.

When the ancient Egyptians used Semitic terms which, for example, Donoha hieroglyphic writing; they were Emezunha Kolvaz foreign, through a special system of spelling.

And I have known of the ancient Egyptian language texts cover a period of about four thousand years; of about 3000 BC., And even the late first millennium AD: When Arabic replaced them, as a place.

The ancient Egyptian language now "dead language", no longer in use: Like the Latin language. Use remains limited, to some extent, in the rituals and rites of the Coptic Orthodox Church.

Inherited from the ancient Egyptian civilization in our contemporary


Talking about tradition requires that we refer briefly to the circumstances that led to the Egyptian people to keen on his land, and to achieve this leadership.Egypt received by a natural safe, and deserts in the east and west, and the Sea in the north, and Jnadl encountered in the course of the River Nile in the south, and give God a steady source of water, the River Nile, and the ground plane has facilitated the link between the Egyptians each other, and between them and their neighbors, and a temperate climate has them well, and spread them in joy and confidence, and a prime location Bakarat linking them to the three main world.All of these factors and other human-made Egyptian man has the distinct potential of making it perform and innovate, to assume the prestigious position Egypt through the ages. 




And succeeded prehistoric man in Egypt in the north and central and south in the first building blocks to put the material and intellectual creativity, and shape of the basics of his life, Vooukd fire, and tap the animal, and knew agriculture. Once the check has stability, and began to look hopefully then go to the cosmic nature, and manifestations suggestive, particularly the cycle of assets between birth and life and death and rebirth. And its ability to observation and extrapolation of things, I understand the Egyptian man that he must pass the same session, live for a temporary period, and die for a temporary period, then sends again for ever and ever. Hence the beginning, the beginning of those two words Alsharitin Gfatta Egyptian civilization momentum and innovation, namely: resurrection and immortality.Thus the old man Valmbar safe that live and create and perform in order to achieve what he wishes him all in a world without a courtyard, a world of immortality.Thus, this human fennel Egyptian sleeves, and work the mind and thought, and began the process of creativity.The beginning was thinking about the forces that move the universe, and who created the universe and its objects. Vatakz himself to the gods and goddesses, but he was not able to determine what these gods, he had chosen symbols of human or animal, or birds or other, which he saw that the characteristics of the gods that thought in her worship.
The line of his first steps towards the art, and began to put controls schools of art in the sculpture, engraving and painting, and doing the same thing for agriculture and handicraft industries, management and the traditions of property, after the united country by a group of leaders, including Narmer and Aha.And culminated in his knowledge of Egyptian writing his creations that have made Egypt of earlier peoples of the earth in this area. Not only did the Egyptian one line is the line Hieroglyph, but culminated in the idea of ​​giving Egypt and other lines are: Alheiratiqi, and Aldemutiqi, and Coptic. Egyptian language and lived the longest in the history of the ancient languages ​​of the world. And still live among us in the names of our country and our cities and our villages, but in our language classical and colloquial.The milestones on the road reached the Egyptian paper from papyrus, to move from the stage of the writing on the stone to write on the material easy to light load, but plays a papyrus a major role in the transfer of creativity across the land of Egypt in ease, say, the Egyptian culture outside the land of Egypt. He continues the march of the Egyptian innovation in architecture, engineering, astronomy, medicine, chemistry, geology, and the superiority of himself in this science through evidence that represent milestones on the road to the ancient Egyptian civilization.And we are all fascinated in front of the head of the seven wonders of the world (the Great Pyramid), in terms of the accuracy of angles and style of construction. The remains of the pyramid towering expressing thought an engineering and architectural excellence, and the doctrine is clear, inspiring all generations, and reminding us grandchildren the greatness of grandparents, and hitting the wall all claims hate the Egyptian civilization, and skeptics in Egypt this miracle, which insult the thought and effort and sweat of the engineer and architect, and the Egyptian worker .The Egyptians never know others in the arts of writing, especially after reaching the paper industry from the papyrus plant. In the field of literature left a lot of masterpieces in the area of ​​governance, advice, and songs that were a source of inspiration in ancient oriental literature, applaud the connection between Akhenaten and Psalm 104 of the Psalms of David are still ahead of us. And the rule of "Amon M Opt" was the source of the Book of Proverbs. Not only that, but he was the lead for the Egyptians in the arts, preferred the arts of theater and music in Greece and elsewhere.A closer look at the creations of ancestors, and the link between them and a lot of aspects in our modern life will make sure we communicate between the past and present through the names that were fired at our country, and the basic features of the character of Egypt, and in the months farming (lunar or Coptic), and in our language of classical Arabic and colloquial, In the names of many of our towns and villages, and in some people like us, and in many of our customs and traditions.
Perhaps the sign of the depth of the roots of the ancient Egyptian human creations, creations that this list is still alive among us, we exercise in our daily lives despite the divergence times.And talk about personal ancient Egyptian requires that we refer briefly to the fundamental factors that played a key role in the formation of this character, the site geographical made Egypt opening up to the ancient world, and the earth flat, which facilitated communication between the people of Egypt and are still cultural and linguistic barriers, and the River Nile, the lifeline that penetrate the country from the far south to far north, which has to man the Egyptian security and stability, and a mild climate throughout the seasons, and belonging to the deep of the land of Egypt, religiosity innate, all of these and other factors made the Egyptian personality, friendly, simple, belong to the land, and self-confident, Matah, open to a large extent, tend to the initiative, and Abida deeply without extremism ..This was the look of the Egyptian people's old himself, he is the people of the sun, noble people, the people of the sky, the people of God, created from the tears unlike other peoples, hold sway in the right direction (from south to north), while the other rivers are rivers flipped. They flat land owners and other owners of the land off.People that took root in which such qualities, it was necessary to form for himself the traditions and principles maintained under constant throughout time, and had been inherited by the grandchildren. If the character contemporary Egyptian had inherited a lot of personality traits of the ancestors, it has inherited from the ancestors of different names, which was launched on our country.Egypt was known throughout the ages range from Titles expressed about the nature of its soil and its geographical situation. These can be divided into three groups Titles (in chronological order for the emergence of these names).The first group are those launched by the ancient Egyptians, either on the whole of Egypt, or part of them - since ancient times, it was dubbed (KMT), ie, black earth, or: fertile land, or a reference to the narrow strip of the Nile Valley, which was grown in since the Egyptian custom of Agriculture. He was also the word: (Dchert), ie, red earth, or: Asahraah land, a reference to the largest area of ​​the land of Egypt, which is a desert land. And he called: (Tawi), ie, the Two Lands, a reference to the key regions in Egypt (the country's south and north): the level and the Delta. And called it also: "Aidboa", ie, "the two banks," a reference to the shores of East and West of the River Nile, where the river separates most of the time between the city districts (which were often in the East), and the city of the dead (which was mostly in the West) , where the dry desert land that will help to save the bodies of the dead. This is in addition to the influential role of the Nile in the life of the Egyptians.Among the names as well: (Tameho), ie, the "land of the north", a reference to Delta, and: (Tahimo), ie, the "land of the South", a reference to the south of the country. Then called the (conspiratorial), ie, "the land of silt," an expression of fertile land which brings him good.Among all these names, more names closer to the heart and mind of the ancient Egyptian name "punched", and then it was the most commonly used to refer to the whole country, and has been using throughout the Egyptian Antiquities, which confirms the link and the affiliation of the Egyptian that part of the land of Egypt, which it grew and flourished the ancient Egyptian civilization.The second group, they are known at a later time of the first group, often in the modern state, and comes on top of names this group name (erosion - ka - Ptah), which is originally the name of the one-month temples of the god Ptah in Memphis: (a dead hostage Currently - Center Badrasheen - Giza), which took place in the modern state, and still remain the advent of so far, which means "opposite the headquarters of (the god) Ptah."It seems that the Egyptian had used this name the most important temple in the most important and oldest capital of Egypt, the most important gods in ancient Egypt, to launch at all of Egypt. It is not uncommon on the part of the launch of all, word (Memphis) is derived from the "from - a group", ie, "consistent and beautiful." Is the name of the pyramid of King Bouap first tribal in Saqqara, ie, that the city has taken its name from the name of the pyramid for this king.Since the ninth century BC, almost, and in one Mlhmte Greek poet "Homer", a "Alawdecea", appeared the name "Aijupts" referring to Egypt. The study found that this name is derived from the name of the ancient Egyptian "erosion - ka - Ptah." It is clear that the Greeks had found it difficult to scale character ha at the beginning and end of the word, and they replaced the gym with a letter Kaf, and this replacement is based on ancient languages ​​and modern. Thus, they became utter the name "Aijupt," and then added to it (as is the case for the names of the flags) at the end of the word the letter "X", preceded by the letter of character movement, to become "Aajews." And not far from the mind that the name "Cheops," uttered the Greek "Ciobs," and that the name "Senusret," Ntqoh "Sizostris" and that the name "Amenhotep" Ntqoh "Omnovis", and so on.The pronunciation of the Greek name "Aajews", derived modern European languages ​​the word function on Egypt, such as Egypt, and the word "Aajews" also made the figure "Aajopti", ie: "Egypt", or "citizen" who lives in Aajews, using "J descent" as is the case in the Arabic language, such as Egypt and an Egyptian, and Escanrih and secondary, and Aswani and Aswan ... Etc..Corresponds to the word "Aajopti" Alkmlh English (Egyptian), and corresponding in other European languages. When the Muslims conquered Egypt found Arabs difficulty in the pronunciation of "Aajopti", a reference to the Egyptian citizen, Vntqoha "Aaqhobti" and "Coptic", which means that the word Copt, as we mentioned means "Egyptian citizen", although it has been used by some to refer to the Christians of Egypt , to distinguish them from Christians in any other place. So Valqubti is Egyptian, whether condemning Christianity or Islam.The third group, led by stand in the name you know by Egypt to this day, a "Egypt," as the name stated in the Koran and the Torah. Common and that the word "Egypt" is an Arabic word meaning "Qatar", gathered on the corner. He believed the owners of this opinion that an Arab named on the basis of its reception in the Koran, and that Muslims were firing at each open them, "Egypt." Whereas it is clear that there is no Islamic country called this last name or keep it, this is the name for Egypt alone. I have mentioned this name in many languages ​​in the countries of the ancient Near East Bhrovh static as it is. Since the fourteenth century BC and the language contained in Akkadian, Assyrian, Babylonian, Phoenician and ancient Arabic, Hebrew, Egyptian names as follows: Egypt, Mushar, Egypt, photographer, Musro, Mizraim .... Etc..And study the derivation of language of this name, it became clear even now that Egypt is not Arabic, it is derived apparently from "Magyar" or "Mushar," and means "Webmasters", or "fortified," an appellation reflects that Egypt is blessed by a natural safe , desert in the east and west, and in the North Sea, and Jnadl in the south. It is "Kenana God in his own land," a "probation" as they are called always. As for the substitution between capital letters gym and Shin and repellent it has existed, the word "Jaba" in the ancient Egyptian language is a "tinge" in Arabic, and the City "Djan" is the "Sun Stone" Now, the word "c" is "recommended", and "wage "she" asked "... etc..Thus we can say that all the names that were fired at our country back in its origins to the ancient Egyptian language. 
 

Hieroglyphic and his meaning

Hieroglyphic word meaning "sacred inscription" (from the Greek ἱερογλύφος), and the term as used by Students of writing systems shows the category of pictorial writing systems fall under the Egyptian hieroglyphic writing and other writing systems, including the Mayan and Chinese writing in its early stages.In common use to indicate the hieroglyphic writing system that was used in ancient Egypt to record the Egyptian language. Where we are the oldest written manuscript of a formal hieroglyphs between 3300 BC. M. And 3200 BC. M. The manuscript images were used to symbolize the initial votes, and had inspired the ancient Egyptian images of those assets are common in the Egyptian environment at the time, from the plant and animal and human and other manufactures.Used hieroglyphic pattern to write a formal event logging on the monuments and religious texts on the walls of temples, tombs and surfaces of the statues and Alolouh stone carved panels of wood color and because of their nature were considered since ancient times in the same system of writing art decorative beautiful, like that of Arabic calligraphy.Line is the father Alheiroglfa first writing systems for each subsequent people built the Semites as some symbols in alphabetical system to record the sounds of their language is the line's initial Sinai derived from it all later alphabet writing systems known in the world almost extinct and the rest of them.After the extinction of knowledge to read the hieroglyphics in later times were busy solving the issue of many symbols, and remember that the same sources and the son of Nun the Egyptian brutality were able to read, even if partially.In the modern era was the discovery of the Rosetta Stone at the hands of an officer in the French campaign, and what followed from the work of Champollion to decipher a significant impact on the progress of Egyptology.Reference to the language of ancient Egypt as the "hieroglyphics" my grassroots and media is a common mistake.



Symbols
Hirogliviataharh Almrørnskhalfeztaliqalkht hieroglyph A thousand,Line hieroglyph ỉ AiaLine Hieroglyphic line Hieroglyph or line Hieroglyph y Aia Massaafalkht hieroglyph ˁ Aaanalkht hieroglyph or line Hieroglyph w and Waoalkht hieroglyph b Babaalkht hieroglyph p hieroglyphic f auction model hieroglyph m Malkht hieroglyph n Nalkht hieroglyph r Ralkht hieroglyph h ​​below this line Hieroglyph ḥ Halkht hieroglyph ḫ Khalkht hieroglyph ẖ Khalkht hieroglyph or line Hieroglyph s Salkt hieroglyph š Halkht hieroglyph ḳ Qagafalkht hieroglyph k Kalkht hieroglyph g c Mbaralkht Hieroglyph Hieroglyph t Talkht ṯ Chalkht hieroglyph hieroglyph ḏ Dalkht d cConsists of a hieroglyphic writing of derived patterns of daily life is writing of a graphic in addition to the presence of alphabet though they are more complex than the alphabet now known in the language deployed in the hieroglyphic Valabagdih divided into three groups.

    
Group A: Symbols are single, or single characters sound like the usual letters today
    
Group B: bilateral sound symbols, a symbol or pattern one but two letters pronounced together
    
Group III: three-Alsot symbols, a pattern or symbol, but one means three.
This is in addition to a range of other marks that do not pronounce a final, but are for purposes such as determining the grammatical plural and the masculine and feminine, and confirmed some of the icons of the meaning of which is known as allotments. The hieroglyphic word derived from the Greek words (Hirose) and (Jlovos) and mean (holy writing)[Edit] Removing the Tlassmha
Return the first attempts decipher the hieroglyphs to the Greeks. It was believed to have the hieroglyphic symbols are symbols of a sham. From the writings of the Greeks on this subject and we received a single manuscript is the "hieroglyphics" to its author Horapulon Hieroglyphica of Horapollon.In Europe during the Middle Ages there was no interest in hieroglyphs, but in 1422 it reached Horapulon manuscript to Venice, sparking interest in them so that some of the artists of the Renaissance, they drew an imaginary building codes to descriptions Horapulon and used them as elements in their drawings of art.Has several attempts to uncover the talismans hieroglyphics before the discovery of the Rosetta Stone in the modern era, including attempts Krcher Jesuit father, who knew that the Coptic is nothing but a dialect or a language descended from ancient Egyptian.The first efforts after the discovery of the Rosetta Stone attempts to Philippe de Sassi 1802 and was a scholar in Arabic has concentrated his efforts on the line Aldemutiqi because he thought that his relationship line patch Arab similarity apparent in the flow, but his research did not produce only one result is that he knew that the names of kings are placed in which is cartridges and they drive Champollion later.After the discovery of the Rosetta Stone during the French campaign on Egypt has the world Chambolion published his discovery on how to decipher the hieroglyphs in 1822. Chambolion was considered the first to discover that the hieroglyphic symbols are the beep codes and unzip the symbols.But that in 2004 revealed Egyptologist Okasha El Daly, the first to discover that the symbols are symbols voice any character is the Arab world, the son of the brutal and that was in his Hawk Almstham to know the symbols of pens, who studied the 89 language and writing system old, including Alheiroglifa and analyzed Many of the symbols [1] developed by the year 861 AD, has achieved Orientalist Austrian Joseph Hummer of that manuscript and translated into English and published in London in 1806 or 16 years before the discovery of Chambolion, and dissemination of news in several Western media [2]. The Syrian researcher Yahya Mir science to achieve the same result and others went on to say that he had briefed Chambolion that this manuscript, but he do not have evidence to confirm or refute this claim.Other lines
Along with the hieroglyphic system exists, write another more fluid and shorthand and easier in handwriting is the line Alheiratiqi who used to write religious documents, medical, administrative, scientific, literary, is its development up to date with the evolution of the line Alheirogafah and not descended from it and not based on it. While derived from the line Aldemutiqi Alheiratiqi in subsequent ages.Post-colonial Egypt and Greek to the mixing of Egyptian and Greek cultures devised a writing system to write the last Coptic language - and the style that is attained by the Egyptian language in that period of history - is the line based on the symbols of the Coptic Greek alphabet
Important NoteUnder occupation Batlamy introduced Egyptian writing Alkadimaoukd was added characters from the Latin language even installed so Btalma pronunciation of words and language remained the language from North Africa, which is the so-called great Coptic or Line Coptic because most of the alphabet Egyptian Old and pronunciation are also ancient Egyptian and would not otherwise have learned the secret of alphabetic language because Hmpelon learning Coptic churches in the know and decrypt the Egyptian languageAnd then disappeared until the language was limited to only the churches and the current Hwaluda but enter upon many of the amendments by the teacher Marzouk in the era of Mohamed Ali Pasha, when the united churches of Egyptian and Greek



Writing in Ancient Egypt

Interested in the ancient Egyptian record everything in writing from the smallest event to the greatest what is going through, from the way of living through the problems and ideas that run it. As without some literary texts, but did not reach us complete the religious texts that were scattered in cemeteries, they completed the thing came to us . Because of this interest in writing a keen interest in the Egyptian and the work on the development to fit the needs and circumstances. The origin of writing would like his peers between the United primitive which started to write in the form of pictures and has remained the Egyptians use images for a long time either other nations have developed written to the symbols.

 And the civilization of Sumer (civilization originated in the south of Iraq) are the ones that guided the Egyptians to the origins of writing symbols, including the featured Writing Hieratic (line religious orders) that the Egyptians were using it for the purposes of religious and first appeared hieratic there was a difference between them and the Sumerian, then there was the development of writing hieratic even lost any resemblance between them and their assets.  The hieroglyphics are writing appeared later, been used for mundane purposes and were based on the images. 

 Then evolved to writing hieratic writing them faster and harder to read called Baldamutiqih (worldly purposes) and has been used until the Christian era. Then leave the Egyptians Demotic We do not know why? Are Khtootadtha because of the complex or because of another? The Egyptian language written in Greek letters and then they added a few letters derived from hieroglyphs to represent sounds not found in Greek and was named captain and remained in use until the seventeenth century and still used in the ritual of the Coptic Church. The hieroglyphic written from right to left or vice versa, or sometimes from the top to the bottom of the hieratic and demotic were Tketban from right to left, always.



Writing Tools:
What began as the first Egyptian writing was written on the stones and then appeared later papyrus (papyrus in Egypt was growing in abundance in the swamps and ponds, but there is now in the north of the Nile from Khartoum)


And the way they used to make papyrus stems from are: -


1. Go a long papyrus stalks into smaller pieces the length of 30 cm and then taken away from her chaff.
 

2. Pulp output cut lengthwise into thin slices stacked side by side.
 

3. Stacked above the bottom layer another layer of slides in the same way, where the perpendicular on it.
 

4. Layers pressed together or even Tgarian Tlthma.
Did not use any of the ancient Egyptian adhesives only juice resulting from the beating or pressing the juice naturally contains starch.


Egyptian also used written materials other than paper, including white limestone chips and broken pottery and wood panels are also used after Ksoeha stucco. Such tools were intended for temporary purposes, such as classroom exercises or drafts or transactions ancient or letters or attendance record of employees. In addition to their use also skin-clad and in the Late Period used in the blogging ivory, clay, bronze and even linen.


And may the panel by stone dimensions of 20-43 cm long and 5-8 cm display and 510 fish, and when one of the edges of the painting there Tjoivan or more to set the colors placed where the red color in the cavity first and the color black in the cavity, the second and any other color in any cavity of another The colors were on the pill form dry, black was the source of carbon and the red color comes from the cave of red and were preparing tablets colors through the mixing of the dye solution Colloidal diluted Vikhther ink when dry If you wanted to melt the ink again enough for dipping the brush in water and passed over surface of the disk (such as water colors). 


 The brush made from bamboo stalks cut in length from 15 to 25 cm and rinse tip tilted Htafa then mashing Age separate the fibers from each other and sometimes reed pens were used, such as badminton, and is done through the incision from the middle age. Instead of grounded after rinsing.

Coptic writing

Coptic writing name from the Egyptian Coptic Christians. It is strange that the word "Copt" originally came from the Greek word "Aigobtios", meaning 'the Egyptian'. Has been shortened to "Gobtios", then move to the Arab "Copt", and finally return to Egypt "Coptos." As the name implies, such as letters Coptic Egyptian language Egyptian hieroglyphics, as happened in 3000 years before. 



 Coptic writing adopted from the Greek alphabet approximately around the second century ce. Christians adopted the Greek alphabet perfectly despite the fact that many of the votes, such as Greek letters that were not present in Egypt. But kept the extraneous messages numeric values. In addition, the Copts added 5 messages taken from the demotic writing, and representing sounds not found in Greek. Final count of 32 and signs of the Egyptian language is masterful at the beginning of the first millenniumUnlike the three Egyptian writings that preceded it and write a Coptic consonants and vowels. This has helped scientists reconstruct history without the Egyptian language as well as provide an idea of ​​how the Egyptian and the words really clear. Coptic writing replace the demotic The letters used in Egypt. It eventually came out about fashion the fourteenth century, when Arabic became the dominant language in Egypt. Coptic writing and language and is limited to the purposes of ritualism in the Coptic Orthodox Church. Here the Coptic alphabet. Blue letters denote the value of the audio message, while the purple words are the names of the letters.

Hieratic

Hieratic type of writing Ancient Egyptian written symbols simplified hieroglyphic symbols of what was original and hieroglyphic writing is not suitable for fast-originated short way of writing for practical purposes is Maaraf Balheiratiqih solution where each symbol in place of the original hieroglyphic.I miss the word "Heratiqi" from the Greek word "Heratikos" "Hieratikos" and means "priestly" and to indicate that the priests were the most commonly used for this line, where a large proportion of the texts hieratic, especially in later times it is the religious texts, written mostly by priests.Line Alheiratiqi is to simplify the line Hieroglyph or in other words, a shortcut though the line Hieroglyph, a line of full marks not commensurate with the nature of the word secular and religious,




 which increased by increasing the movement of life, which required the line quickly, and required materials, writing was not suited with it, but the highway such as papyrus and Alaustraka (Alhqavp ) and in contrast to the line Hieroglyph - line details - which fits more with the large structures where the engraved Blazamal, and the line was written by Alheiratiqi reeds and ink. Hieratic was used in ancient Egypt for nearly 2000 years until the first of the dynastic era of the modern state was suitable for writing on papyrus, documents, reports, inventories and in the courts .... and I also wrote on the stones in the era of kings Alliepien. 

 

The hieratic writing on papyrus stick thin jungle tapered Age dipped in black ink or red at the beginning of the paragraphs in the accounts and punctuation marks Oand write the names of evil creatures and wrote hieratic in lines perpendicular to the Middle Kingdom and then wrote Badzlk gradually in brief horizontal from right to left.And the emergence of writing around 800 Demotic hieratic then lost power replaced by demotic writing a popular line of tourists and Greeks called hieratic writing on the line or the holy men of religion, for use in the sacred texts written in the Roman era in high-lines it lost all the old joy.

2012/05/26

King Tutankhamun

King Tutankhamun

Tutankhamun was one of the last kings of 18th dynasty. He ascended the throne at a very young age at about nine years old and ruled for almost nine or ten years. He followed Akhenaton to the throne, as his right to the throne was established through the marriage with princess Ankhesenpaaten (third daughter of King Akhenaten and queen Nefertiti).

King Tutankhamun


At the beginning of his reign, he lived in the royal palace at Tell el Amarna (for only three years) under the care of the royal nurses; the tomb of his royal wet-nurse was discovered recently at Saqqara. He was probably brought up together with his wife-to-be Ankhesenpaaten; they could have taken lessons together from the same teachers and scribes giving them instructions about the new religion of Aton.

          Either before or immediately after the king ascended the throne, he came under the influence and authority of the priests of Amon especially Ay and returned to the cult of Amon. He also left El Amarna, and the court was moved to Memphis as a transitional stage since Thebes was full of anger because of the new religion of Aton. Also from Memphis, it was easier to mount expeditions and control military operations in Asia Minor against the rising power of the Hittites.

          Later on, he moved to Thebes and changed his name from Tutankhaten to Tutankhamun and the name of his wife name changed to Ankhesenamun. He also returned to the main burial place of the New kingdom kings at the Valley of the Kings by burying some funerary equipments of Amarna royalty in KV 55 in which the tomb sealing prove that the one who made these deposits is Tutankhamun. At Thebes also, he erected the Restoration Stela, which was found at the Hypostyle Hall at Karnak upon which he mentioned that he restored the stability in the country and returned to the cult of Amon and the other deities who had been neglected during the time of Akhenaton and he reopened temples and made restoration works there, also he participated in festivals such as the Opet festival as illustrated on the walls of the Colonnade of Luxor Temple.

          During his reign there were two powerful characters:

1)     Hor-m-heb who was an army general; he was a very strong military man.
2)    Ay who was a high priest of Amon.

 They were the two persons who actually ruled the country from behind the scenes especially when the king was a child. Throughout out the reign of Tutankhamun, the administration of Egypt’s affairs was in the hands of Ay who was the head of the government and his vizier.

Tutankhamun Death

 The Death of King Tutankhamun


There are different theories concerning his death:

We used to believe that he died as a result of a blow to his head because there was a big hole at the back of his skull, but because Tutankhamon didn't make any military activities this idea was not widely accepted.

There was another theory that he died of Tuberculosis (chest disease) but after examination of the mummy, this idea was denied. 

Tutankhamun Death


Also there was a theory about his death because of a brain tumour, because the cavity around his brain was relatively big, but this also was denied.

A CT scan performed in 2005 by a group of scientist led by professor Zahi Hawass on the whole mummy revealed the following:

1-     The hole in the head didn't cause his death because the Egyptian scientists concluded that the hole was created post-mortem (after his death) in order to insert mummification liquid or maybe the workers of Howard Carter when trying to remove the heavily glued mask from his head thus causing this type of injury. (It was glued by means of resin)
2-     There was another injury in his left leg (thigh). This has probably contributed to his death, it happened because of a fall from a big height when he was riding his chariot (probably while hunting). The wound got infected and didn’t heal properly causing gangrene, which resulted in his death.
3-     His height was about 170 cm.

 Tutankhamun DeathTutankhamun Death

Recent investigations 2010 of  Tutankhamun  Death


In February 2010 the results of a study conducted on the DNA of the family of Tutankhamun were revealed. This project was called “Tutankhamun family project”, and it lasted for two years from Sept 2007 till Oct. 2009. The study was conducted through the Egyptian Mummy Project (EMP) headed by Dr. Zahi Hawass, Secretary General of the Supreme Council of Antiquities, and a team composed of Egyptian scientists from the National Research Center, members from the Faculty of Medicine at Cairo University, and two German DNA specialists.

 Tutankhamun Death

11 royal mummies of the family of Tutankhamun were studied using radiology and DNA technology. These mummies came from KV 35, 55, 62 and 21A and B. (Only three of these mummies’ identities were certain: Yuya, Thuya and Amenhotep III, in addition to the mummy of Tut).
They concluded that:
-         Yuya and Thuya were identified as great-grandparents of Tutankhamun and Amenhotep III
-         Amenhotep III and KV 35 Elder Lady (Ty) as his grandparents
-         KV 55 male (Akhenaten) and KV 35 Younger Lady are his sibling parents.
-         Amenhotep III could be clearly identified as father of KV 55 male (Akhenaten) and the testing of Amenhotep III as father of Tutankhamun was negative.
SO the results showed that the mummy of KV 55 is the son of Amenhotep III and father of Tutankhamun leading to the assumption that KV 55 male can be certainly identified as Akhenaten. Also KV 35 Elder Lady was identified as daughter of Yuya and Thuya indicating that she could be queen Ty.
Ø     To sum up:

1.Concerning his Parentage:

Recent evidence, however, has indicated that he was in fact born in Tell el-Amarna. It had been revealed that Tutankhamun’s father was the “heretic” king, Akhenaten, whose body is now almost certainly identified with the mummy from KV 55 in the Valley of the Kings. His mother, who still cannot be identified by name, is the “Younger Lady” buried in the tomb of Amenhotep II (KV 35). The mummy of the “Elder Lady” from the same tomb can now be conclusively identified as Tutankhamun’s grandmother, Queen Ty. 

 
This is a figure showing the family tree of Tutankhamun as concluded by the “Tutankhamun Family Project”, published in Feb 2010.


Tutankhamun Death
family tree of Tutankhamun

 
The project is not yet able to identify Tutankhamun’s mother by name, although the DNA studies also show that she was the daughter of Amenhotep III and Ty and thus Akhenaten’s full sister. Thus Tutankhamun’s only grandparents, on both his paternal and maternal sides, were Amenhotep III and Ty.

 Tutankhamun Death

2.Concerning his Wife:

Two stillborn foetuses were found mummified and hidden away in a chamber of Tutankhamun’s tomb. Preliminary DNA analysis supports the Egyptological belief that these were children of the young king’s. This analysis has also suggested a mummy known as KV21A, a royal female whose identity was previously completely unknown, as the most likely mother of these children and thus as Tutankhamun’s wife. As Tutankhamun’s only known consort was Ankhsenamun, the daughter of Akhenaten and his chief queen Nefertiti, further study of this mummy should help to illuminate further the complex relationships within this family.


3.Concerning his Death:


New light was shed on the cause of death for Tutankhamun with the discovery of DNA from the parasite that causes malaria; it is likely that the young king died from complications resulting from a severe form of this disease.

Medicinal foodstuffs (i.e., drugs to fight fever and pain) found within the tomb support the team’s contention that the young king suffered from a severe malarial infection. The CT scan also revealed that the king had a lame foot, caused by avascular bone necrosis (a disease known as Kohler disease, affecting the blood supply of the bone leading to degeneration of the bone). This conclusion is supported Egyptologically by the presence of over one hundred walking sticks in the tomb and by images of the king performing activities such as hunting while seated.

The project believes that Tutankhamun’s death was most likely a result of the malaria coupled with his generally weak constitution. The CT scan of the pharaoh earlier confirmed the presence of an unhealed break in the king’s left thigh bone; the team speculates that the king’s weakened state may have led to a fall, or that a fall weakened his already fragile physical condition.

The Tomb of King Tutankhamun


It carries no 62 in the Valley of the Kings (KV 62). It is a small tomb it is cut down into the bedrock of the valley, probably been made initially for the high priest Ay.

The entrance stairway consists of 16 steps going down to the Corridor and this corridor leads to the Antechamber and the antechamber leads to the Annexe at the northern end while the eastern side leads to the Burial Chamber, which leads in its turn to the Treasury on the eastern side. The burial chamber is the only decorated room in the tomb.

  The Tomb of King Tutankhamun

Everything found there was crammed over each other, every space was used that is because of the king’s sudden death, which caused the people to put everything in very rapidly even the daily life equipments were put in together with the funerary equipment. Also there was no time to decorate the whole tomb. Only the burial chamber was decorated because the dead king would need all the spells depicted on the walls closer to his body for his protection in the afterlife. 

  The Tomb of King Tutankhamun
  The Tomb of King Tutankhamun

The walls were painted very quickly and the tomb was rapidly closed. That’s why when the burial chamber was opened, the walls were covered with fungus because the paints didn't have time to fully dry, and this maybe one of the reasons that caused people’s death after the discovery; not as was said because of the curse of the pharaohs. "Death will come on swift wings for those who will disturb the king" but these words were just a spell, or not?!

 The Tomb of King Tutankhamun

 The Tomb of King Tutankhamun


 The Tomb of King Tutankhamun


Some events triggered the famous so-called “Curse of the Pharahs” related to the opening of the tomb of Tutankhamun:
         Carter’s canary was eaten by a cobra on the day of discovery
         Death of Lord Carnarvon as a result of a mosquito bite, after slashing his cheek while shaving and the wound became infected.
         However, many others who visited the tomb or helped to discover it lived long and healthy lives. A study showed that of the 58 people who were present when the tomb and sarcophagus were opened, only eight died within a dozen years. All the others were still alive, including Howard Carter, who later died of lymphoma at the age of 64 in 1939

 The Tomb of King Tutankhamun

 The Tomb of King Tutankhamun
 
Tutankhamun’s Burial:

Around the sarcophagus of Tutankhamun there are 4 shrines one inside the other in order to protect the mummy. After the outermost shrine everything remained completely intact so they didn't reach the precious jewellery, which were placed directly on the mummy as a kind of protection as jewellery was used as amulets for protection.


The Tomb of King Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun coffins in Cairo museum
 The Tomb of King TutankhamunThe Tomb of King Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun’s mummy was originally put in one sarcophagus and three coffins. It used to be kept in the outermost quartzite sarcophagus in the burial chamber of his tomb. Recent news confirmed that the mummy was moved from inside the sarcophagus to a nearby glass showcase with very accurate temperature controls to make sure that the mummy stays in perfect condition after signs of decay have been observed by Egyptologists.

 The Tomb of King TutankhamunThe Tomb of King Tutankhamun


The 4 funerary containers are:
 
1-     Quartzite sarcophagus, still in situ at the tomb.
2-     1st gilded wooden anthropoid coffin
3-     2nd gilded wooden anthropoid coffin wood inlayed with semi-precious stones and covered with thick gold leaf.
4-     The innermost anthropoid coffin which is made of pure gold (110 Kg of solid gold)  

 The Tomb of King Tutankhamun

Finally there was the golden mask covering the face of the mummified king with a total weight of 11 kg of pure solid gold. 




King Tutankhamun

 

The Tomb of King Tutankhamun

 

 The Annex of Tutankhamun Tomb

 

 The Antechamber of Tutankhamun Tomb

  

The Burial Chamber of Tutankhamun Tomb

 

The Treasury of Tutankhamun Tomb