2012/08/31

Anthropoid coffin of Peduamun

The outer coffin of Peduamun,sailor of the bark of Amun, chief of navigation of the barque of Amun, son of Taditanebthenen and Thatienwenzu. Beneath the pectoral on the coffin are depictions of the hippocampus or seahorse, the figure of Isis kneels before one and Nephthys before the other.

Underneath this is a deep horizontal band depicting the weighing of the dead man's heart before Osiris, accompanied by Anubis, Maat and Thoth. On the lower half of the coffin are twenty-five vertical columns of text, extracted from Chapter 125 of the Book of the Dead, the 'Negative Confession'. The interior of the lower half of the coffin is also decorated, at the head end is the figure of a kneeling god, supporting the solar barque, on either side is the udjat-eye.

Underneath are two Ba-birds facing inwards with arms outstretched to a solar disk, which rests on a pair of horns. The horns are at the top of a large djed-pillar which extends the length of the coffin and holds the crook and flail. The sides are decorated with various deities.


Outer coffin of Pedi-amun

The mummiform outer coffin belonging to Pedi-amun, made of wood and carved and painted. The wig is striped red, green and yellow, the face is also red. The beard is now missing. The pectoral comprises bands of lotus petals and beads below which is a winged disk flanked by vertical columns of text naming, ' the Osiris, the door-keeper of the temple of Amun, Pedi-amun.

Below this are more texts accompanied by vignettes. The interior of the lid is plain as is the exterior of the base except for a single line of text, a htp-dj-nsw formula invoking Osiris. The interior of the box is decorated, including Isis, Nephthys and the symbols for east and west.

 


Coffin of Ta-ten

The game inside the pair of coffins belonging to Ta-ten most brightly painted outside the game. The new cover is shaped mummy wig painted the same color of blue, red and yellow, while the pectoral and headband are made of lotus petals. On the chest is a winged ram-headed figure wearing a sun disk on his head. 

Under this are two on each side of the face Horus son of a snake, are left Qebehsenuef Duamutef and the serpent wearing the red crown of Lower Egypt. On the right side of the snake takes the white crown of Upper Egypt and is facing Amset and Hepi.

 
 
Under a falcon with outstretched wings, wearing a solar disk and under this is a symbol of Osiris "Firstly the West" title. Besides this anthropomorphic deities are many and the only other inscription on the coffin, another formula htp-dj-nsw, citing new Osiris.
 
The decoration on the underside of the base is constituted by a large djed pillar, from which emerge two retaining arms of a disc on a solar ankh sign. Low, there are two snakes, one of which is bearded.
At the edge are four studs on each side.


Double coffin of Usirmose

Three anthropoid coffins of the Theban priest Usirmose are known. The outer coffin is in the Curtius Museum (Ex. 83), Liège, and the other two are held in Brussels. The larger of the two bears face Usirmose coffin, wearing a wig simple, striped, and on his chest is a necklace. The cover has a single vertical column of hieroglyphic text, a line list more turns around the base.

The little coffin in which the mummy was placed, is entirely covered with texts and the representation of a variety of divine beings and objects. A figure of the goddess nut is on the underside of the cover, while the bottom of the base is a pillar djed-(a symbol of Osiris) placed above a "Isis knot".


coffin of 21th dynasty

The coffin of the 21th dynasty anonymous was found in the royal cache at Deir el-Bahari. The lid and the tank probably belong to two different coffins. The exterior decoration of the tank is a funeral procession and rituals before the completion of various deities.

 The interior walls are decorated with three geniuses standing. The cover, which seems to have belonged to the coffin of a woman, is divided into several scenes in which the god Osiris plays the main role.




Coffin of a singer of Amun

The anthropoid coffin of Tawosretempernesut a Theban god Amon singer, is an excellent example of the products from the 21st Dynasty. It is richly decorated with scenes and texts from several different collections Funeral New Kingdom, for example, the famous scene of the "weighing of the heart" associated with Chapter 125 of the Book of the Dead. "The other scenes are limited to the representation of the deceased in adoration before the gods and the "demons" of the beyond.








2012/08/30

Ancient Egyptian Poetry

 Ancient Egyptian Poems Poetry

Here is some interesting information on ancient Egyptian poetry:

"Poetry is perhaps the greatest forgotten treasure of ancient Egypt," said Richard Parkinson, an expert on ancient Egyptian poetry at London's British Museum, home to the largest collection of Egyptian artifacts outside of Cairo.

The earliest poetry in ancient Egypt was likely part of an oral tradition. Hymns, stories, and prayers were passed down from speaker to speaker. The ancient Egyptians left behind various love poems which relate the emotions felt all those thousands of years ago. And yet, they can be read as if they apply to us in the 21st century.

Ancient Egyptian Poetry



In poetry, and especially love poetry, the Egyptians and all their desires and fears come alive again. Although the Egyptians didn’t go in for roses and heart-shaped boxes of chocolates, they did have lots of love poetry. The love poems date back to the 13th-12th centuries BC but the sentiments that they express seem just as fresh today, verses filled with lust, longing, tenderness, and heartbreak.

An ancient Egyptian love poem-

O my beautiful one,
I wish I were part of your affairs, like a wife.
With your hand in mine
your love would be returned.
I implore my heart:
"If my true love stays away tonight,
I shall be like someone already
in the grave."
Are you not my health and my life?
How joyful is your good health
for the heart that seeks you!

Here is an example of one of the beautiful poems, sung by a woman secretly longing for the man she is in love with:

‘My brother overwhelms my heart with his words,
he has made sickness seize hold of me…
see how my heart is torn by the memory of him,
love of him has stolen me.
Look what a senseless man he is
- but I am just like him.
He does not realise how I wish to embrace him,
or he would write to my mother.
Brother, yes! I am destined to be yours,
by the Gold Goddess of women.
Come to me, let your beauty be seen,
let father and mother be glad.
Call all my people together in one place,
let them shout out for you, brother.’

Arius of Alexandria continued the ancient Egyptian tradition of hymals, popularising his theology by setting his ideas in verse. Not to be bested, Ephrem of Syria wrote 'orthodox' songs to counter the heretic Arius.

Ancient Egyptian Dynasties

A Brief summary of Ancient Egyptian Dynasties

Studying ancient Egyptian dynasties is one of the most exciting things for historians. Probably the most exciting era in human history, the Egyptian civilization was also an advanced one. Spread over three thousand years, ancient Greeks thrived in economic prosperity. Considering the amount of years the civilization lasted, it is important to note of the different rules or dynasties the civilization went through.

Ancient Egyptian Dynasties



Hundreds of Pharaohs ruled Egypt more than thousands of years ago. The civilization time is divided into periods, kingdoms and dynasties.

Periods of Ancient Egyptian Dynasties

A period is characterized by some sort of cultural and technological evolution that influenced how Egyptians lived in the subsequent years.

Kingdoms of Ancient Egypt Dynasties

These are politically purveyed societies that had law and order. The supreme constitution was the Pharaoh.

Dynasties in ancient Egypt

Political families continued their power brokerage across generations. Kith and kin of retired or demised kings were given kingship and other stately positions. Until Alexander the Great arrived, up to thirty one dynasties ruled Egypt.

Chronological order of the Ancient Egyptian Dynasties

Pre-dynastic period

This was the period between 5500 and 3100 BC. During this time settlements came about in the lower half of the Nile River.

Early Period Dynasties

The first two dynasties ruled Egypt between 3100 and 2686 BC. During this period, Memphis was designated as the capital city. The unification of upper and lower Egypt happened during this period. Amongst the rule of ancient Egyptian dynasties, this event set the trend toward a cultural evolution from both lands.

Old Kingdom Dynasties

During this period between 2686 and 2181 BC, three dynasties ruled Egypt. During this period a lot of events happened that set off a social revolution. The king was bestowed the status of God. The Sun was worshipped as the supreme life-giving divine source. The world famous step pyramid was built during this period.

It was again during this period that the pyramids of Giza were built. The dynastic rule during this time was ripe with social and cultural revolutions. The Pharaoh was considered God incarnate. The Pharaoh set the trend towards anything the Egyptians followed.

New Kingdom Dynasties in ancient Egypt

This period witnessed the eighteenth and twentieth dynastic rule. Probably the second golden age for Egypt, the New Kingdom period was used to propagate the empire’s footprints wider. Considering that ancient Egyptian dynasties were not keen on expanding, this era actually changed that attitude.

A lot of conquests were made by the rulers as the kingdom spread far and wide. It was during this time that Tutakhamen, at the age of nine became the ruler of the kingdom.

Late Dynastic Period

Between 525 and 332 BC, the might of the Egyptian civilization was weakening. The Persian monarch Cambyses invaded the kingdom. Around 525 BC, Egyptians got a taste of invasion. But the Persian monarch was eventually defeated and turned away.

The invasion of Alexander the Great

This is one of the most notable events of history considering that Egypt’s culture and social fabric took a turn with the invasion of Alexander the Great. The Macedonian kingdom set up its base in Egypt, and eventually the era of ancient Egyptian dynasties perished.

Ancient Egypt Words

Ancient Egypt Words and Meanings

Civilization is incomplete without its language. A language is what connects to each other and if the language is in Egypt, then the connections become stronger.
Ancient Egyptian language is a language breathtaking. The Egyptian words and meanings, symbols, indications so precisely the sheer brilliance of the Egyptians.

Ancient Egypt Words and Meanings

  
The hieroglyph is one of the oldest writings developed around 4000 BC The pictorial representations are so fun to watch. They create a sense of mysticism around them when they are read. These symbols were printed on almost all forms of art and architecture of Egypt. They were considered the verses of the Almighty.

Here are some common words in ancient Egypt and their meanings :

1. Abtu
 This place is known by the common name Abydos meaning the seat of the adulation of Osiris. In addition, it can be described in the agreement as the Egyptian sunset when the sun passed and entered the underworld.

2. AKER
It represents divinity binary lion was considered the godfather of dawn and dusk, the peaks kissed the sky is the western and eastern Manu being Bakhu.
 

3. AKH
Akh meant the characteristic of the deceased who have links with the god of the underworld eternaland being consistent. Once the deceased is on his way to hell, and evil epitaphic transcripts were formed which further developed the ankh not allow the individual to die for the next time.
 

4. Amenta
This meant hell. It was the place of twilight.
 

5. AMULET
This meant charisma and magic, was represented in the form of animals sacrosanct, also carved out of precious stones. They were worn as an ornament through life and after death too.
 

6. BASTET
It was the feline deity heads was known under the common name of the sun goddess. It depicts the life and warmth.
 

7. BAKHU
It was thefabledmount from which the light came at dawn.
 

8. BOAT
It was a dinghywhich sailed deities.
 

9. BOOK OF THE DEAD
It is one of the famous and prominent ancient Egyptian words and meanings is an assortment of hexagons charmed written on papyrus. He belonged to Egyptian tombs and was maintained near death as it was assumed that helped the dead around them to hell.
 

10. Canopic
Canopic jars were 4 in number, each representing the son of Horus. In these jars organsof base lifeless have been preserved.
 

11. CARTONNAGE
That was the cloth soaked in plaster that was used for the facades of mummified bodies and sarcophagi.
 

12. CENOTAPH
This meant empty tomb. It was built for toughness ritual.
 

13. Deshret
This meant tingeddiadem red.
 

14. DJEW
He represented mountains. Egyptians were convinced of the existence of a peak extraterrestrial held dream or heaven. Djew was also used in tombs that symbolized the deceased is here in his future life.
 

15. DROMOS
This is an amount cementedboulevardskirted by sphinx.
 

16. DUAT
It is known that the plot of the deceased.
Some of Egyptian words and meanings. They represented how cabalistic Wizard Egyptian civilization was!


Ancient Egypt Proverbs

Ancient Egypt  Proverbs and Ancient Egypt Sayings

A very important part of Ancient Egyptian religion was the Ancient Egyptian Sayings. “Knowing Oneself!” was the most important religious ideas of Ancient Egyptians. The religious aspect of this idea is that within man live the god and the heavens.




Another famous saying from ancient Egypt is “The kingdom of heaven is within oneself and the person who knows himself shall find it”. In Ancient Egypt, these sayings were used as a teaching for a man to understand the universe. These sayings were thus emblazoned on the walls of tombs and temples in Egypt.

Some Ancient Egyptian Proverbs in outer temples of Luxor

1. Nature is the best and the shortest route towards knowledge.

2. A price should be paid for every joy.

3. It is better not to know things rather than knowing things which we do not know.

4. While searching the laws of harmony, we will discover knowledge.

5. The inner light glows in peace and meditation.

6. “Man know yourself” is said as the Egyptians believed that the body is the house of god.

7. The man that helps others will be helped by others in his time of need.

8. A man runs the risk of shipwreck if he travels unknown waters.

9. True sages are those who give all they have without cruelty.

10. If one is searching for Neter he should observe nature.

11. People carry their own downfall through their own tongues.

12. Love is one thing, knowledge is another.

13. If the Master teacher his disciple what is error, the disciple’s compliance will be slavery but if he teaches reality the submission is ennoblement.

14. Understanding develops by degrees.

Some Ancient Egyptian Sayings in inner temples of Luxor

The initiates of Ancient Egypt who had proven themselves worthy and ready to obtain advanced knowledge and insights were rich with their philosophical thoughts and practices, which had a direct impact over their sayings. Some of them are given below:

1. Listen to your conviction even if it seems absurd to your reason.

2. To teach one must know the ones who he is teaching.

3. The way of knowledge is narrow.

4. The nut doesn’t reveal the tree it contains.

5. Characters of moral order are measured by actions.

6. Our wits serve to affirm, not to know.

7. Always observe and follow nature.

8. All seeds reply to the light, but the color is diverse.

9. The plant shows what is inside the seed.

These are some of the important Ancient Egyptian Sayings.

Message Received from these Sayings in ancient Egypt

Throughout these sayings we can see knowledge is compared with stupidity. These sayings have come from the father to son and then to his son and so on. These are concerned with the realities of human experience in his day to day life.

These messages encrypted on the walls of the buildings and monuments also give us an insight on the Ancient Egyptian society. Hence we can conclude by saying that the Ancient Egyptian Sayings can be used as source of wisdom even in today’s modern society.

Aegyptus

Here are some facts about the Roman province of Egypt Aegyptus.The Roman province of Egypt (Aegyptus) was established in 30 BC.
The leaders of ancient Egyptian dynasties lost control of Egypt in the late first millennium BC. Egypt became a Roman province during the reign of Augustus in 30 BC, after his victory over Mark Antony and Cleopatra queen. The capital of Egypt was Alexandria. According to Greek mythology, Aegyptus name is derived from the name of an ancient Greek sovereign known Aegyptus. Ancient Egyptians Aegyptus was a Roman province of Egypt named after him.




Augustus Gaius Cornelius Gallus was appointed the first governor of Egypt. The use of a governor put an end to political influence in Egypt. The governor was at the top of the hierarchy, followed by the administration of justice. He was appointed chief of military security, assisted by the legions and cohorts to ensure peace and order. Roman law governed the business. Romans from huge amounts of income in Egypt.
For the proper functioning of the administration, Egypt was divided into smaller provinces with the establishment of municipal councils. In the third century, mayors and officials received administrative responsibility. The Greeks had a council of elders, independent council. The centralized management system of administration was followed until the 4th century AD.
The Romans developed a complex tax system in Egypt. Taxes were levied on land and can be paid in cash or in kind. Officials collected taxes in small species. In Egypt, a person was allowed to own property and it was necessary that the owner of a property to perform a public service.
In addition, an agent has been appointed, who was required to inquire about the property when no one claims ownership. People who do not own land as tenants lived on land owned by the state, the rich or the king. Poll tax was introduced by the Romans. Citizens of cities paid less tax than the Egyptians.
The system of social hierarchy was introduced by the Romans when the Romans and Greeks were in the lead, followed by the Metropolitan and finally the people staying in the villages. In Egypt, people could apply for citizenship by joining either the army or be part of the legions. To become a citizen of Alexandria, a person must demonstrate that his parents were citizens. Alexandrians were only allowed to have Roman citizenship.
Egypt was a key source of food for the Romans. The food was transported from Egypt to Rome. During the 1st and 2nd century, business in the thriving Roman province. Goods were traded against coins. Egyptians revolted against excessive taxation levied to cover the loss of revenue during the third century. This revolution has led to the gradual decline of the Egyptian economy.
The Roman province (Aegyptus Ancient Egypt) was a center for Christianity. It is also the place where Coptic Christian sect is believed to have originated. As Christianity spread throughout Egypt, Christians began to settle here. Not much is known about exactly how Christianity was introduced in Egypt. Alexandria was the largest center of Christianity.
Supported the Roman province of principles such as Arianism, Gnosticism, Manichaeism and monasticism. After the partition of the Roman Empire into two parts, Egypt was part of the Byzantine Empire and Constantinople was his new capital. However, Greek remained the language of the people of Egypt. However, Alexandria remained the religious and economic center. He also continued to be the main source of food for the Romans.

Ptolemaic Period

After the death of Alexander of malarial fever in 323 BC, the Macedonian commander in Egypt, Ptolemy the son of Lagos, one of the seven bodyguards of Alexander, succeeded in obtaining for himself the satrapy (provincial governor) of Egypt.

According to the first Ptolemies, Greek culture was exclusively. Greek was the language of the court, the army and administration. The Ptolemies founded the university, the museum and library of Alexandria and the Pharos lighthouse built. A canal from the Red Sea was opened, and Greek sailors explored new trade routes.


  
The Ptolemies were able to assimilate the Egyptian culture and thus respect the native population, but the new Roman rulers who came after them made little effort to do so. Certainly, they have adopted the pharaonic titles and temples built in the traditional style, but that his country was ruled by Rome in absentia, the indigenous population, yet deeply rooted in their ancient religion and beliefs, refused to honor the leaders who are no longer part of the ceremonial roles of divine kingship.
The Ptolemies tried to emphasize their willingness to support the "Egyptian" things and many temples were constructed during this period. Egyptian gods Osiris, Isis and Horus became the symbol of the ideal family, but the cult of the goddess Isis was particularly popular and spread outside Egypt.
It was under the dynasty of the Ptolemies of Alexandria truly became the cultural and economic center of the ancient world. Egypt was ruled by Ptolemy of Alexandria descendants until the death of Cleopatra VII in 30 BC. The early Ptolemies improved the quality of Egyptian agriculture by the recovery of farmland through irrigation and introduced crops such as cotton and best producers of wine grapes.
Literature flourished, focusing on the Library of Alexandria. It is at this time that Manetho composed his history of Egypt, and the trilingual decree was inscribed on the Rosetta Stone.
It was literally a golden age for citizens of Alexandria and Egypt as a whole. Although Alexander never lived to see his glory, he nevertheless became the crucible racial, he is said to have wanted for his capital. Ptolemy decided early on that Alexandria is not just another port city, but the home of a new era in Greek science and art. It may seem surprising to find such a pulse a military man, but Ptolemy was more than just another general.
With the death of Cleopatra VII, the last Ptolemaic Rule, and the defeat of the once-mighty navy Ptolemaic Actium in 31 BC Egypt became part of the Roman Empire under Augustus Caesar. His main concerns were to preserve the independence of Egypt, to extend its territory if possible, and to secure the throne for her children. After disastrous defeat at Actium in 31 BC, Cleopatra was unable to continue the fight against Rome.

Third Intermediate Period

Third Intermediate Period  (1069–653 B.C.)

The Third Intermediate Period covers the centuries between the New Kingdom (about 1550-1069 BC) and the Late Period. During the course of the Third Intermediate Period, the capitol of Egypt moved from Tanis to Nubia, to Thebes, to Sais and back to Nubia and Thebes. Obviously, there was some confusion as to who was ruling Egypt, and the succession of competing dynasties in this kingdom ruled mostly concurrently.

 


Like the 21st Dynasty, the 22nd Dynasty was split between Upper and lower Egypt. Upper egypt was ruled by Horsiese, a high priest of Amun at Karnak. He was appointed by his cousin, Osorkon II, and while Osorkon ruled in the north, Horsiese took control of the south of Egypt. The rest of the 22nd Dynasty was as series of Libyan kings ruling in Tanis and Bubastis They were recognized over all of Egypt until the rival dynasty in Thebes and Leontopolis rose around 828.

During this time another branch of the family at Thebes took the title high priest of Amun, and ruled almost independently in Upper Egypt. Around 945 BC another military man of 'Libyan' origin, from Bubastis, established direct control over the entire country as king Sheshonq I, marking the beginning of the 22nd Dynasty.

Egypt lost its control over Israel and Lebanon (this is the story of Moses) and was again ruled by different kings in the north and the south. Nubia got back its independence altogether, and had its own kings, and so did the Egyptian territories in Israel and Syria (this is the time of King David and King Solomon in the Bible).

Relatively little building took place during the Third Intermediate Period, but the creation of stylistically and technologically innovative bronze and precious temple statuary of gods, kings, and great temple officials flourished. Temple precincts, with the sanctity and safety they offered, were favored burial sites for royal and nonroyal persons alike. Gold and silver royal burial equipment from Tanis shows the highest quality of craftsmanship. Nonroyal coffins and papyri bear elaborate scenes and texts that ensured the rebirth of the deceased.

Around 715 BC, a black Sudanese (or Kushite) king from south of Egypt, named Piankhy, invaded and conquered most of Egypt and founded Dynasty 25 of the Pharaohs.

Preoccupied with internal rivalries during the Third Intermediate Period, Egypt gradually lost its traditional control of Nubia, located to its south. About 760 B.C., an independent native dynasty began to rule Nubia, or Kush, from Napata in what is now the Sudan and extended its influence into southern Egypt. In 729 B.C., the Egyptian rulers Namlot and Tefnakht joined forces to extend their control farther into Upper Egypt.

Second Intermediate Period

Second Intermediate Period of Ancient Egypt (1650 - 1550 BCE)

Although the Second Intermediate period is generally considered to start at the beginning of the Thirteenth Dynasty, it is now thought that central authority was maintained until the later part of the dynasty. However, by the end of the dynasty, the obscure Fourteenth Dynasty had established an alternative power centre in the eastern delta.



It is believed to have started when the Hyksos, who were invaders from West Asia, took over the eastern part of the Nile Delta (North-Eastern Egypt, the part closest to Asia), having their capital at Memphis. Nobody knows for sure who the Hyksos were, but they seem to have been Amorites, who spoke a Semitic language (related to Hebrew and Arabic) and came from the area around Syria and Israel, an area which had traded extensively with the Egyptians during the Middle Kingdom.

At an indeterminate point, the Middle Kingdom crumbled and control in the Delta broke apart into many smaller units centred on towns while another dynasty sprung up once more in Thebes. Perhaps as a result of the fragmentation of political power, the Thirteenth Dynasty lost control over Nubia and there is evidence to show that even Buhen was deserted at this point.

It was when the government center moved to Thebes following Merneferra Ay (c. 1695-1685). The 2nd Intermediate Period ended when an Egyptian monarch from Thebes, Ahmose, having driven the Hyksos from Avaris into Palestine, reunified Egypt, and established the 18th Dynasty, the start of the period known as the New Kingdom of Ancient Egypt.

This period saw the decline of the past thirteenth and fourteenth dynasties and the great increase in number of the Asian population whom, bit by bit started to settle and spread in the whole land of Egypt. Through a number of fifty years, the Asians started to join force and with their new skills, like ironwork and mastery of horses, invade Egypt.

The last rules of the Seventeenth Dynasty at Thebes began a campaign against the northern Hyksos rulers. King Seqenenre Tao’s bodily remains have been found with a fatal wounding to the head, which may have been suffered during a battle against them. The following rulers were Kamose and Ahmose, who continued the battle against the Kingdom of Avaris. Ahmose I finally ended the Hyksos rule and as the instrument of the reunification of Egypt, he is credited wsith the founding of the Eighteenth Dynasty and thus the New Kingdom.

2012/08/28

Predynastic Period

Pre Dynastic Egyptian Period (5,500 - 3,100 BC)

Scholars mark the beginning of the predynastic period somewhere between 6500 and 5000 BC when farmers first moved into the Nile valley from Western Asia, and the ending at approximately 3050 BC, when the dynastic rule of Egypt began. The period of Ancient Egypt history, which includes the period of Predynastic Egypt, stretches over 3000 years and encompasses hundreds of Pharaohs.




The Predynastic Period is divided into four separate phases: the Early Predynastic which ranges from the 6th to 5th millennium BCE (approximately 5500 - 4000 BCE), the Old Predynastic which ranges form 4500 to 3500 BCE (the time overlap is due to diversity along the length of the Nile), the Middle Predynastic which roughly goes form 3500 - 3200 BCE, and the Late Predynastic which takes us up to the First Dynasty at around 3100 BCE.

The Chalcolithic period, also called the "Primitive" Predynastic, marks the beginning of the true Predynastic cultures both in the north and in the south. The southern cultures, particularly that of the Badarian, were almost completely agrarian (farmers), but their northern counterparts, such as the Faiyum who were oasis dwellers, still relied on hunting and fishing for the majority of their diet. Predictably, the various craftworks developed along further lines at a rapid pace. Stoneworking, particularly that involved in the making of blades and points, reached a level almost that of the Old Kingdom industries that would follow.

Another important event that took place during this period was the discovery of a "Scorpion" tomb at Abydos. King Scorpion was believed to have ruled Upper Egypt and lived just before or during the rule of Narmer at Thinis

During the Predynastic Period Egyptians developed a written language and also came up with an institutionalised religion. They developed a settled, agricultural civilization along the fertile, dark soils (kemet or black lands) of the Nile (which involved the revolutionary use of the plough) during a period in which Northern Africa was becoming more arid and the edges of the Western and Saharan desert spread.

The known names of the Pharaohs who ruled during these dynasties of the Predynastic period are

1. Horus 'Scorpion' Pharoah
2. Horus Zekhen
3. Horus Ro
4. Horus Narmer "Catfish

During this era, hunting was no longer a major support for existence now that the Egyptian diet was made up of domesticated cattle, sheep, pigs and goats, as well as cereal grains such as wheat and barley. Artifacts of stone were supplemented by those of metal, and the crafts of basketry, pottery, weaving, and the tanning of animal hides became part of the daily life. The transition from primitive nomadic tribes to traditional civilization was nearly complete.

Ancient Egyptian Middle Kingdom

Running from the end of the first intermediate period to the start of the second, the Middle Kingdom lasted from about 2055-1650 B.C. The Middle Kingdom began with the reunification of the country under Mentuhotep I who ousted the kings of Herakleopolis

The rulers of Upper Egypt won, and they reunified the country about 2000 BC, with the capital first at Thebes in the south, and then at a new city just south of Memphis. The Pharaohs of this period are not as powerful as before. They show themselves as taking care of their people, instead of as god-kings as in the Old Kingdom.


 Ancient Egyptian Middle Kingdom


Ancient Egyptian Middle Kingdom


Ancient Egyptian Middle Kingdom


During the time period of the new kingdom, pharaohs were all powerful, and pharaohs were all buried in the same geographic area called the Valley of the Kings.

It was during this period that the written language was regularised in its classical form of Middle Egyptian. The first body of literary texts was composed in this form, although several are ascribed to Old Kingdom authors. The most important of these is the "Instruction for Merikare," a discourse on kingship and moral responsibility.

Trade flourished, arts and literature flourished. Egypt built strong armies to defend herself against her neighbors. During the time period of the middle kingdom, pharaohs were expected to be good kings and wise rulers. This period is marked by immense industrial development, building, literary masterpieces, and general prosperity in the country. Recognizing that the succession of the pharaoh was important to the continued stability of the country, this dynasty began a long series of co-regencies to facilitate the succession to the throne.

Several new fortifications were built under Senusret III (about 1872-1853 BC) to secure a slightly more southerly border at Semna in the Second Cataract; the king headed several campaigns against Nubia. Egypt's immediate interest in Nubia would have been its wealth in raw materials, such as gold and copper. Other materials desired by the Egyptians, such as hard wood and ivory, were traded through the region.

Mentuhotep II made military campaigns in Nubia, which Egypt had lost by the 1st Intermediate Period. So did Senusret I under whom Buhen became Egypt's southern border. Mentuhotep III was the first Middle Kingdom ruler to send an expedition to Punt for incense. He also built fortifications at Egypt's northeastern border. Senusret instituted the practice of building of monuments at every cult site and paid attention to the cult of Osiris.

First Intermediate Period

The era of Ancient Egypt history, which includes the time span of First Intermediate Period, stretches over 3000 years and encompasses hundreds of Pharaohs. It was a period after the Old Kingdom when Egypt was not ruled by a single government. It lasted between 110 and 200 years depending on which sources one trusts. The Old Kingdom appears to have ended towards the end of the 6th Dynasty, and the Middle Kingdom was founded when Upper and Lower Egypt were reunited during the 11th Dynasty: I will restrict the discussions to this period.



When Pepi II died, the authority of the central government broke down and the unity of Upper and Lower Egypt crumbled. Manetho claims that the Seventh Dynasty was composed of seventy Kings who ruled for seventy days. There is no evidence to support this unlikely situation, and it is generally thought that the statistic was not exact but instead used to express the chaotic nature of the period.

The 1st Intermediate Period is often characterized as chaotic and miserable, with degraded art -- a dark age. Barbara Bell hypothesized that the 1st Intermediate period was brought about by a prolonged failure of the annual Nile floods, leading to famine and collapse of the monarchy.

The 1st Intermediate Period also marks a wider spread of the Pharaonic culture throughout the country. During the Early Dynastic Period and the Old Kingdom, the typical Pharaonic culture had been limited to the royal court and the elite surrounding it. The 6th Dynasty policy of using local governors to increase the hold of the central government on the entire country started a process that would establish the Pharaonic culture beyond the royal court.

During the 1st Intermediate Period, cartonnage was developed. Cartonnage is the word for the gypsum and linen colored mask that covered the face of a mummy. Earlier, only the elite had been buried with specialized funerary goods. During the 1st Intermediate Period, more people were buried with such specialized products. This indicates that the provincial areas could afford non-functional craftsmen, something that only the pharaonic capital had done before.

However no more pyramids were built. Literary sources describe a time of anarchy, with noblemen and noblewomen working in the fields, men killing their parents, brothers fighting, and tombs being destroyed. Some people, like Brian Fagan, think this may have been brought on by a major climate change which brought drought conditions to Egypt.

Tomb inscriptions stress the independence of the individual, sometimes referring to local conflict. The use of funerary symbols and concepts previously reserved for the king shows that members of the élite could hope to reach the afterlife.

Late Period

Late Egyptian Period (ca. 672–332 B.C.)

The first king of Dynasty 30, Nectanebo I (380–362 B.C.), managed to repel a Persian attack shortly after he ascended the throne. The remaining years of his reign were fairly peaceful and were marked by an ambitious program of temple construction, which was continued on an even grander scale by Nectanebo II (360–343 B.C.). The latter king managed to hold off another Persian attack in 351 B.C., but in 343 B.C. a third attack succeeded, and Egypt fell once again to the Persians, who were defeated in turn by Alexander the Great in 332 B.C.



Earlier historians saw it as period of decline, but it was in fact very mixed. During the Late Period, Egypt alternated between native rule and domination by Persia. Psammetichus I (Twenty-sixth Dynasty) used Greek mercenaries to seize power in the vacuum left by the withdrawal of both Assyria and the Kushite kings from Egypt.

Throughout the Late Period, Egypt made a largely successful effort to maintain an effectively centralized state, which, except for the two periods of Persian occupation (Twenty-seventh and Thirty-first dynasties), was based on earlier indigenous models. Late Period Egypt, however, displayed certain destabilizing features, such as the emergence of regionally based power centers.

Tombs were laid out like temples and decoration borrowed Old Kingdom themes and conventions. Although some aspects of statuary were archaising, new ideas were also introduced, such as a more naturalistic depiction of the individual.

After the fall of Assyria in 612 B.C., the major foreign threat to Egypt came from the Babylonians. Although Babylonia had invaded Egypt in 568 B.C. during a brief civil war, both countries formed a mutual alliance in 547 B.C. against the rising threat of a third power, the Persian empire—but to no avail. The Persians conquered Babylonia in 539 B.C. and Egypt in 525 B.C., bringing an end to the Saite dynasty and native control of Egypt.

Cambyses established himself as pharaoh and appears to have made some attempts to identify his regime with the Egyptian religious hierarchy. Egypt became a Persian province serving chiefly as a source of revenue for the far-flung Persian (Achaemenid) Empire.

Nectanebo II was the last native Pharaoh of Egypt and the Persians again took control with Artaxerxes III 343 - 338 B.C. who established the 31st dynasty which ended when the country was surrendered to Alexander the Great who set up the Ptolemaic dynasty in the Greco-Roman Period of Egyptian history

Early Dynastic Period of Egypt

The time period covering Early Dynastic Egypt is 3050 BC - 2686 BC.

It is generally taken to include the First and Second Dynasties, lasting from the Protodynastic Period of Egypt until 2686 BC, or the beginning of the Old Kingdom. With the First Dynasty, the capital moved from Abydos to Memphis where an Egyptian god-king ruled a now unified polity that extended from the Nile Delta to the first cataract at Aswan.




The Early Predynastic is otherwise known as the Badrian Phase -- named for the el-Badari region, and the Hammamia site in particular, of Upper Egypt. The equivalent Lower Egypt sites are found at Fayum (the Fayum A encampments) which are considered to be the first agricultural settlements in Egypt, and at Merimda Beni Salama. During this phase pottery was being made, often with quite sophisticated designs ( a fine polished red wear with blackened tops), and tombs were constructed from mud brick. Corpses were merely wrapped in animal hides.

King Menes aka Hor-Aha, is considered to be the founder of the first Dynasty who united Upper and Lower Egypt. It was during this period that the divine kingship became well established as Egypt's form of government, and with it, an entire culture that would remain virtually unchanged for the next 3000 or more years. Writing evolved from a few simple signs mainly used to denote quantities of substances and their provenance, to a complex system of several hundreds of signs with both phonetic and ideographic values.

A very important change that marks the beginning of the Early Dynastic Period is the rise of urbanism. Inhabitants of small settlements throughout the country abandoned their homes and moved to larger communities and cities. Several key factors, that could vary from region to region, have influenced this process of urbanization.

Evidence of temples or shrines from Predynastic and early Dynastic times are scant, except for some material from Abydos and Hierakonpolis. Shrines seems to have consisted of a matting of woven reeds attached to a wooden framework. Naturally these things have perished through time, but hieroglyphic texts, cylinder seals and ebony and ivory tablets from the Archaic Period show representations of early shrines.

According to the historian Manetho, the first king was Menes (likely reign circa 3100–3050 BC). However, the earliest recorded king of the First Dynasty was Hor-Aha (reign c. 3050–3049 BC), and the first king to claim to have united the two lands was Narmer (the final king of the Protodynastic Period). Funeral practices for the peasants would have been the same as in Predynastic times, but the rich demanded something more. Thus, the Egyptians began construction of the mastabas which became models for the later Old Kingdom constructions such as the Step pyramid.

Ancient Egyptian Swords

Throughout history, the sword plays an important role in the loss or loss of combat range. This weapon was introduced at the beginning of the New Kingdom in Egypt. Egyptian swords were inferior to other swords invented in other places. According to archaeological data, the Egyptians did not actually use swords much at all - at least not for military purposes (but quite long daggers / short swords were fairly common in civil and political life).


After the collapse of the central government in Egypt because of internal rebellion, the people of Palestine Hyksos took this instability and invaded Egypt around 1640BC. They ruled Egypt for over 200 years and brought with them tremendous progress in making weapons, particularly the use of metal in the manufacture of swords and knives. There is no stone predecessors of this type of weapon. Axes, arrows and spears have a long wooden handle or shaft, and a small cutting or drilling head that was shaped during Neolithic flint. Unlike other weapons used by the ancient Egyptians, the swords were a direct consequence of the introduction of metal.


Swords had short sleeves made of wood or ivory and long cutting edges, which could only be obtained with a harder metal than copper. Bronze, easier to cast than copper and much more difficult, was first used to make swords. Bronze, easier to cast than copper and much more difficult, was first used to make swords. His natural temperament could be further increased by repeated heating and cooling and hammering. Sickle-shaped swords (originally inherited from the Sumerians) were gradually replaced by swords with a slightly curved blade.


"Peoples of the sea", the invaders of the Aegean and Asia Minor who first attacked Egypt during the reign of Merenptah (1213-1202BC), also introduced straight, two-edged sharp blades points stab. The New Empire infantry carried spears, battle axes, sickles and words daggers. A guy at the beginning of the sword was khepesh Khopesh or a word sickles introduced in Egypt during the early New Kingdom Levant, when the Egyptians came into contact with the Canaanites. He was short, had a curved blade, and was used for slashing. He went out of fashion during the 19th dynasty.


Khopesh - Sword cruelly curved sickle adopted Canaanites, which was used to execute their enemies en masse, as an infantry weapon and as a symbol of the authority of their masters.
The Ancient Egyptian sword could be used to cut / slice or with a knife. Cutting blades on a sword was bent wider. Swords stabbing were both sharp and light.Ancient Egyptian SwordsAll these swords have a strap to keep cestuses. While the situation has passed, the Egyptians began to use iron, therefore, could be thinner swords lighter and stronger. This has created a better opportunity to be palm supremacy of close of sophistication. Quotas have been issued with one of these two types of sword and used accordingly.


Ancient Egypt Monotheism

The Egyptian Book of the Dead demonstrates that the Egyptian people originally believed in one great God and not many.

Maspero admitted that the Egyptians applied the epithets, "one God" and "only God" to several gods, even when the god was associated with a goddess and a son, but he adds "ce dieu Un n'etait jamais DIEU tout court"; the "only god" is the only god Amen, or the only god Ptah, or the only god Osiris, that is to say, a being determinate possessing a personality, name, attributes, apparel, members, a family, a man infinitely more perfect than men.

Ancient Egypt Monotheism



Akhenaten showed no interest in promulgating his faith -- not until it became to his political advantage to do so. Akhenaten raised Aten to the position of sole god, bringing monotheism to Egypt. He and his family are frequently shown worshipping Aten by reaching out to him.

The time leading up to Akhenaten showed "a progressive increase" in the regard for the sun god, and a view of Re as a universal god. The 18th dynasty saw a rise of "Heliopolitan" cults and a "solarization" of the principal gods of Egypt.

Akhenaten's monotheism, in line with this view, was neither evangelical nor exclusive.

The Ancient Egyptian definition of Ra is the perfect representation of the Unity that comprises the putting together of the many diverse entities, i.e. The One Who is the All. The Litany of Ra describes the aspects of the creative principle: being recognized as the neteru (gods) whose actions and interactions in turn created the universe.

Certain animals were chosen as symbols for that particular aspect of divinity. When a total animal is depicted in Ancient Egypt, it represents a particular function/attribute in its purest form. When an animal-headed figure is depicted, it conveys that particular function/attribute in the human being.

egyptian scarab beetle

Egypt has never been a country with a large population of wild herbivores grazing or many other animals. Therefore if the number of dung beetles were much lower, but this humble insect attracted the attention of Egyptians.

The dung beetle (also known as the Beetle) was famous for his habit of rolling balls of dung on the ground and place them in their burrows. The female lays her eggs in the ball of dung. When they hatch, the larvae would use the ball for food. When manure was consumed beetles leavers hole.

When manure was consumed beetles leavers hole.Beetles are associated with the Egyptian god Khepri.The scarab was also a symbol of rebirth after death. The heart scarab, which were hieroglyphic inscriptions on the back, was often buried with the dead to ensure the rebirth of the deceased in the afterlife. When the Egyptians mummified body they removed his heart and put a stone carved like the beetle in its place.



The antenna radiation as the head of the insect and its practice of dung-rolling caused the beetle also carry solar symbolism. Representation of a scarab was used in the manufacture of shaped jewelry pendants, bracelets, rings and necklaces and believed to hold strong religious and magical properties. The owner's name was inscribed on their flat bases to ensure that the powers of protection would be given to the user. Dung beetles come in a variety of colors, matte black and shiny metallic green and red.


Below the beetles were inscribed with hieroglyphics, names, symbols, mottos, and more. The image below shows a soapstone registered against (steatite) beetle. Scarabs were made of various minerals. Scarab pendants, bracelets, rings and necklaces were often made of precious or semi-precious stones such as carnelian, lapis lazuli and turquoise.