2012/09/23

Jewelry of Azzah Fahmy

 Jewelry of Azzah Fahmy

I always wanted to be the one who writes about Azza Fahmy. I have followed the  footsteps of her artistic career as the first Egyptian jewelry designer acknowledged by the international markets and as an  innovator in the field of creative design.

Her name makes one think of beauty, richness, and warmth.  And because “Love is Happiness”, all her designs are transformed from being only made of silver and gold embedded with precious and semi-precious stones like Sapphires, Jades, and Garnets, to love charms that bring luck and bliss.

















Azza Fahmy worships the Arabic and Islamic heritage. She has spent thirty years praising its meanings, weaving them into artistic designs and Arabic lines making beautiful pendants, necklaces, earrings, rings, and bracelets full of the incense and magic of the East. Every piece comes into the world bearing her very personal prints.

The words Al-Wesal (connection), Al-Hayam (passion), Al-Hawa (love) and Al-Reda (satisfaction); are the theme of her work. Other words of prayer are call the soul to rest: Al-Baraka (blessing), Ya Fateh Al Abwab (You who opens all doors), Al-Sa’ada (happiness), and Al-Hares Allah (God is The Protector).

Because of that, her inventive and continuous production which never deviated from tradition, actually achieved her what she always dreamed of when she said, “I want my name to be a synonym for the most beautiful jewelry with the most breathtaking designs.

” This paved her way to international markets. She became the first Egyptian jewelry designer acknowledged by the international markets as an equal in the field of creative design. Fahmy was chosen by the international Gold Council to be one of its judges in its international competitions that reward innovators in the field of jewelry design. She also became one of its permanent members.

 Her role intensified after she set a goal to export 80% of her designs outside of Egypt, after having carefully considered the outlets that would merchandize her jewelry. Azza Fahmy was born in the southern governorate of Sohaj, Egypt. She studied Fine Arts and specialized in interior design. Afterwards. becoming an apprentice to a gold and silversmith at
 
the ancient bazaar of Khan El Khalil. There, she became the first woman in Egypt to be permitted into a traditionally male-dominant profession. After years of apprenticeship and intensive research into traditional jewelry forms, she held her first exhibition in 1974, which  launched her career, taking her around the world and placing her among the top professional women in Egypt. Working in silver, gold, and semi-precious stones, her work reflects a wide range of Arabic, Islamic traditions, and periods; including Bedouin, Nubian, Kabilli (Algerian Berber), Umayyad, Egyptian and Syrian Ayyubid and Mamluki, Persian Safavid, Central Asian Seljuk and Timurid, Turkish, Ottoman, and Indian Mogul. Fahmy has also been credited with reviving the use of classical Arabic poetry and Islamic wisdom sayings in the calligraphic inscriptions incorporated into many of her pieces.

Her distinctive style of using Arabic calligraphic inscriptions can be seen molded into gold in the center of square or circular silver pendants; or sometimes for the Middle Eastern touch by with a crescent-shaped silver pendant of Ottoman floral motifs. But largely, Cairo-based Azza Fahmy’s

designs feature a line from the Holy Quraan, Khalil Gibran’s famous literary works, or from the sayings of old Islamic and Arabic figures. Looking at her designs it is clear why the chic Egyptian Fahmy, beginning 30 years ago, made a name for herself as a designer deeply rooted in the Islamic and Arab tradition.

Though her work may have evolved over the years through her travels and research, Fahmy still follows the Arabic style and she describes her designs as imbued with the “spirit of the Arab world.” Yet, Fahmy continues to tweak the ancient and the traditional by incorporating modern and contemporary styles in her work.

At her recent exhibition, her second in the capital after more than a decade, Fahmy elaborates on her individualistic work. “Everything inspires me,” she exclaims with a flourish, “the birds, flowers, and the motifs in a house or a piece of proverb,” she adds. “The present trends in jewelry are lots of colors and

flowers,” says Fahmy. “After many years in this line [of work], your hand automatically shapes what the mind desires. But, I can say my motifs are modern Arabic,” says Fahmy. Her motifs also feature the “cultural message” she wishes to convey and spread to the world; a message of beauty and traditions in the Arab world. She does this not through her Arabic styles but by poems and the sayings. She says, “My designs always create a communication between the wearer and the designer.” The bond is established because wearers are attracted and inspired by the special message nestled into her jewelry designs. They are maxims that they can identify

with and that makes them feel special. In fact, her philosophy in life is is to make everyone happy when they were one of her creations because they know that it is something special. This internationally renowned designer, whose client list boasts many famous and prominent personalities, has also designed costumes and jewelry for theatrical productions and movies. She has held more than 200 exhibitions around the world. In Cairo, Fahmy owns a large factory with nearly 100 people who execute her designs and make her dreams come true.

The prices of her designs vary from LE 500 to LE 20,000 and or more if it’s a specially commissioned work requiring precious stones. But her work is “more special than a Gucci or an Yves Saint Laurent because it’s different,” she says. In America Azza Fahmy has had exhibitions of her work in Washington DC, Denver, Houston, and New York. Her work has also been shown in England, Germany, Italy, Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates, and Jordan. Her commercial clients include the Brooklyn Museum in New York,

the Howard University Art Museum, the Museum of Women in the Arts, the Textile Museum, the Sackler Museum at the Smithsonian Institute in Washington DC, the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology, the University of Illinois Center for the Arts, Williams College Museum of Art, the Brook Museum of Art at Memphis, and the Institute Du Monde Arabe in Paris as well as Harrods and Liberty of London.

Her many international clients include Queen Noor of Jordan, French actress Catherine Deneuve, Madame Jihan Sadat, and the royal families of Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and Bahrain. Woman in Egypt have most always had a capacity to rise up in Egyptian society, even during the most ancient of times. However, that does not mean that it has always been easy, but it is not difficult to see why Azza Fahmy is today one of Egypt's leading women.

2012/09/16

Ancient Egyptian Wars

The Egyptians had geographical boundaries which offered some security from foreign invasions and threats. Nevertheless, wars were common in the ancient world and so were in Egypt. The inscriptions, paintings, sources of war, specific war related architectural layouts etc constitute the sources of war. Sekhmet was the goddess of war.

Throughout the Old Kingdom, Egypt mounted raids and expeditions against its neighbours, particularly Nubia and Libya, to acquire resources such as gold, building materials, cattle and, of course, slaves.

Ancient Egyptian Wars



Battle of Megiddo between Egypt and Syria took place in 1479 BC when Tuthmosis ruled Egypt. The Egyptians won the battle, capturing over two hundred chariots and two thousand horses from the defeated Syrians.

The Egyptian battle with Hitties took place in 1288 BC in the city of Kadesh in Syria. The city was under the control of Hitties whose objective was to control Syria. The Egyptians were led by Ramesses II, who commanded an army of 20,000 men divided into four divisions.

Each division was named after a major Egyptian deity: Amun, Ptah, Ra, and Sutekh. Ramsses led several charges into the Hittite ranks, killing the king's brother and several other key leaders. The Egyptians were seemingly victorious in the war though they never took the city. A peace treaty was signed by both sides.

Around 1650 BC, Egypt was invaded by the Hykos who introduced them the chariot. They ruled the northern part of the country for over a century from their capital of Avaris. During the second intermediate period, Egyptian soldiers began to be better equipped protective jackets, lighter shields, compound bows and swords.

Egyptian Words

How did the ancient Egyptian words and their meanings over time:

Ancient Egyptian words and meanings were represented in hieroglyphs. It was a symbolic language represented in the form of images. Written documents hieroglyphics have been found. The Scriptures have been dated to 3200 BC. Egyptian language development is part of the development of Afro-Asiatic language. Language was used until the 5th century AD. But began to decline in use. Ancient Egyptian words and meanings are still present in many Egyptian relics, artifacts, tombs and temple ruins. Ancient Egyptian language is one of the oldest recorded languages ​​of man in the history of the world.


Language development


Before 2600 BC, hieroglyphs were widely used. It was during the Early Dynastic periods. Naqada II pottery vessels inscriptions of hieroglyphic symbols indicating words.


Language during the Old Kingdom


Much improvement has happened during the period of the Old Kingdom between 2600 BC and 2000 BC. Meanwhile, there has been progress in the development of ancient Egyptian words and meanings. Pyramid Texts reveal rows and rows of hieroglyphs. Elite Egyptians recorded their tomb walls with many statements. Temples were also. These different ways to enter words on different surfaces developed language. Graves had short autobiographies of the deceased. Temples were philosophical sayings. Ideograms have tripled as phonograms to pluralize words. It was also an important development in the language of the ancient Egyptians.


Period demotic


The development of the Egyptian demotic language was profound during the 7th century BC and the 5th century AD. This language has been used for about a thousand years. It was a strong language that has developed over the years. During late demotic, Egyptian demotic language was at an advanced stage of development. Once the Macedonian Empire established their base in conquered Egypt, the use of demotic Egyptian declined. However, between 30 BC and 450 AD, a number of literary objects were written. These include journals, memos, autobiographies, observations, creative expressions and so on. When the Romans invaded Egypt, people began to speak less of the Egyptian demotic language.


Some Egyptian words and their meanings


To understand ancient Egyptian words and their meanings, it is important to understand graphical notations. Different symbols represented different aspects of the environment. The following is a compilation of them limited.


Akhet
It is a symbolic representation of the horizon. This symbol was used to indicate the sunrise and sunset.


Amenta


Amenta was used to mean morbidity. It became a symbol to represent burial.
 

Canopic

Internal parts of the body were removed during the mummification process. They were placed in canopic jars. Canopic jars later went on to represent the four son Horus in hieroglyphs.



There are many ancient Egyptian words and meanings represented as symbols that have not yet been fully discovered.


Egyptian Curse

 Ancient Egyptian Curse


Curses, the former held a very important expectation on the psyche of people, rituals and traditions. We hear swearing to be inscribed on tombs and others, but this was rare.
The text of the Fifth Dynasty pyramids is the one that is intact. A stele was found which belonged to Sarenput I, Elephantine, which was part of the kingdom of Senusret I, it was a curse for diverting intruders and protect the things left at his statue.

Egyptian Curse


A curse, to be efficient enough to be placed in a suitable and correct. For example, if a curse is placed to avoid desecraters entering the tomb, and the curse itself is placed on or near the tomb. The purpose is defeated because, for the misfortune to take effect, the tomb must have been undertaken.
According to the beliefs of ancient Egypt, a curse to be read by the offender to take effect. Therefore, all these curses were written in the rooms before the actual tombs in a more accessible location. You can find the curses placed on doors, walls, stelae, statues, and on the coffin doors, even false.
For a person from ancient Egypt, curses were just another part of their tradition, culture, religion and society. In short, it is a concept very much in tune with their daily lives. All societal obligations, family and religious were instilled in his habits, behavior and interactions.
A curse was just another obligation of Maat, law and order, the norms and mores. It was a warning to all those who dared to act against Maat, rebels and criminals. The ancient Egyptians had the inherent belief in the power of these curses.
A wax figure of Apep, enemy of the sun was used. His name is written in green in the figure, wrapped in papyrus and throw it into the fire. Once it began to burn, they kick the figure four times with the left foot. These wax figures were often placed in tombs.
One of the scourges of the most famous is the curse of the pharaoh. It is believed that the curse will take this person who lay the mummy of Pharaoh. Some curses are to burn or on the walls of tombs ante rooms, as in the mastaba of Khentika Ikhekhi at Saqqara.
However, more than a deterrent to tomb robbers and these curses, these were intended to protect and maintain the sanctity of graves by the priests. These curses became gained worldwide fame after the discovery of the tomb by Howard Carter Tutenkhamen.
Curses were also used as a war strategy in writing the names of enemies on steles, tablets, clay pots, numbers of people in the strings, etc. These were then destroyed and the enemy would have made little and powerless.

2012/09/13

Ancient Egyptian Weapons

Ancient Egypt civilisation existed at around 3150 BC,in the region of Eastern North Africa. Projectile weapons were used by the ancient Egyptian army, as well as other period military, as standoff weapons, usually used in order to soften up the enemy prior to an infantry assault.

At various times during Egypt's history, different weapons were used, including throw sticks, spears or javelins, bows and arrows and slingshots.



Ancient Egyptian Weapons


Mace:

Stone mace heads were replaced with iron, copper and bronze. It was used as an efficient close contact weapon even from horseback. It was a powerful weapon which could be deadly if the person using it was strong enough.

Bow and arrow:

The bow and arrow is one of ancient Egypt's most crucial weapons, used from Pre dynastic time into the Christian and archaic Islamic periods. It was a ranged weapon which caused a projectile to leave the soldier and strike a target. Some of the first bows that we know of were the "horn bows", made by joining a pair of antelope horns by a central piece of wood.

By the beginning of the Dynastic Period, we find bows that had a single curvature and were made of wood and strung with sinews or strings made of plant fiber. In the pre-dynastic period bows frequently had a double curvature, but during the Old Kingdom a single-arched bow, known as a self (or simple) bow, was adopted.

These were used to fire reed arrows fletched with three feathers and tipped with flint or hardwood, and later, bronze points. The bow itself was usually between one and two meters in length and made up of a wooden rod.

Sling:

Sling was the oldest of Egyptian weapons. As the slings were cheap and made of perishable materials, only a few ancient slingshots have survived. One of its advantages was the easy availability of ammunition in many locations.

When lead became more widely available during the Late Period, sling bullets were cast. These were preferred to pebbles because of their greater weight which made them more effective. They often bore a mark.

Spear:

Consisting of a shaft, usually of wood, with a sharpened head and used as a thrusting weapon or as a missile. The spear was versatile - cheap to produce and easy to use requiring limited training. The spear does not fit comfortably into either the close combat class or the projectile type of weapons.

It could be either. During the Old and Middle Kingdom of Egypt's Dynastic period, it typically consisted of a pointed blade made of copper or flint that was attached to a long wooden shaft by a tang.

However, in the New Kingdom, bronze blades became more common, attached to the shaft by means of a socket. These conventional spears were made for throwing or thrusting, but there was also a form of spear (halberd) which was fitted with an axe blade and thus used for cutting and slashing.

The Throw Stick:

The throw stick does appear to have been used to some extent during Egypt's pre dynastic period as a weapon, but it seems to have not been very effective for this purpose.

Yet, because of their simplicity, skilled infantry continued to use this weapon at least with some regularity through the end of the New Kingdom. It was used extensively for hunting fowl through much of Egypt's dynastic period.

Chariot:

Chariots were introduced after the Asian Hyksos armies invaded the Delta during the period of the Middle Kingdom.

Knives:

Many knives made of flint, copper, and bronze have been found in Egypt. Knives were used as weapons, but also as tools in everyday life for cutting rope, or animal hides.

Sword:

Swords were used for cutting and stabbing. Swords of different lengths were used in battles in ancient Egypt. The blades were made of copper or bronze and attached to wooden handles. Many swords belonging to the pharaoh, or wealthy people were decorated with carved scenes, precious metals and valuable stones.
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2012/09/06

Ancient Egyptian Priests

A society based on religion is bound to give a huge respect and regard the priests, the souls of the sacred knowledge. The high priests were appointed as the pharaohs could not perform all the ceremonies everywhere. Priesthood deeply rooted in the Egyptian traditions. Priests often passed down their positions from father to son. They enjoyed great power and wealth in Egyptian society. Neglecting the needs of the gods, they believed, would invite problems.Funeral rites, teaching school, supervising the artists and works, and advising people on problems have been made by them.

Ancient Egyptian Priests


In the morning, the high priest breaks the seal, lights a torch to walk god, said the prayer, incense burners, washing the statue put on clean clothes and jewelry and it offers places for food and drink with him. Singers offer hymns of praise to God. At the end of the day, the priest out of the sanctuary, sweeping his footsteps as he goes, and seals the sacral region again.
New priests were often chosen by the Pharaoh. Often parents choose Pharaoh fill positions in the temples most powerful and influential. The priests were transferred and promoted by the Pharaoh. The priests had to meet certain requirements when they have done their duty. Ritual purity was important.


They were only allowed to wear linen or clothing to herbal. Items of clothing that have been done on animals are not allowed. They were required to shave her head and body every day.
Temples were connected lakes where they had to take cold baths. During the service of the temple, a priest had to shave off all his body hair, even eyebrows. They had to practice sexual abstinence. The sacred scrolls are read out loud by the "kher heb", the lector priest, who is obliged to read directly from the papyrus book held open in his hands. He should recite exactly as they are written. Netjar hem or high priest had to take care of the god and the god needs to act as a servant of God.


Women from noble families were accepted as "netjers Hemet" already in the Old Kingdom. Usually, they were attached to the goddesses. The High Priest is also called the first prophet and could in turn delegate Prophets Second, Third and Fourth as representatives. The priesthood was divided into four groups, namely phyles and phyle worked every third month. The god in the form of a statue was housed in a shrine, the naos, which was built of stone or wood was placed in the intimate room of the temple. The statue could be made of stone, gold or gilded wood, inlaid with semi-precious stones.


Then the food and drink was put before the god. It was a demonstration of the best we could find; meat, roast chicken, bread, fruit, vegetables, beer, wine, and everything in large quantities on own temple kitchens, gardens and firm and high quality. Offerings of flowers always included.


Ancient Egyptian Beliefs

Egypt is in Africa and the Middle East. The ancient name of Egypt is "black earth" Kemet meaning. He received his name due to the fertility of black soil found in the plains of the Nile River flowing through Egypt.

Egypt is also known for its historical monuments such as the Giza pyramid complex and even the Egyptian civilization holds a lot of importance. Egypt is a country with a political and cultural significance for the Middle East. Egypt gets its English name from various sources such as Egypt word French, Latin and Greek Aegyptus Aigyptos old.

Ancient Egyptian Beliefs

Ancient Egyptian Beliefs



The ancient Egyptians believed strongly in God and life after death. The rule of the Pharaohs was placed on the foundation of the divine right of kings. The Egyptians believed that to please the gods they should make offerings and pray to God. Gods were worshiped in temples which were under the care of priests who acted on behalf of the king.

The statue of the god was placed at the heart of the temple. It is only on some rare occasions where the statue of the god was opened for public worship. After the New Kingdom, the king's role as a mediator between God and men were less important. In fact, priests have created a system of revelation in which people can communicate directly with God.

Another prevailing belief was that humans are physical and spiritual aspects and each person has his own shadow, the soul, the life force and a name. It was believed that the heart is the place of emotions and thoughts. After the death of the person, the ultimate goal of the deceased was to unite his life force and soul must be regarded as the "blessed dead".

2012/09/05

Ancient Egypt Pyramids

The pyramids built around thousands of years continue to attract tourists and historians from around the world. Mysteries, myths and stories surrounding the pyramids are more attractive than all the historic sites of the world. Throughout history there have been many speculations and theories about the pyramids. However, there are still many unanswered questions that continue to puzzle scientists, mathematicians, astronomers, historians, architects and physicists around the world. People have devoted their entire lives to uncover the secrets of these incredible structures and people who built them.

Ancient Egypt Pyramids


Ancient Egypt Pyramids

Ancient Egypt Pyramids

Ancient Egypt Pyramids

Ancient Egypt Pyramids

Ancient Egypt Pyramids

"Pyramid" The word actually comes from "pyramis the Greek word which means" wheat cake. " "Pyramis the word was used to describe the ancient Egyptian buildings because they reminded the Greeks of wheat cakes pointed roof. The ancient Egyptian word for pyramid was "Sea". Egyptologists have developed many theories about why the tombs of the pharaohs were first built in the shape of a pyramid.

Here are three different ideas:

1. The pyramid represents the first land to appear at the beginning of time a hill called "Ben-Ben". Pyramid-shaped stone in the first temple, which itself is thought to symbolize the primeval mound from which the Egyptians believed life emerged.

2. The pyramid has sloped sides so that the dead pharaoh could symbolically ascend to heaven and live forever.

3. The pyramid represents the sun.

Evolution of the pyramids:

Initially the pyramids were not huge pharaohs built tombs called mastabas small. These mastabas were smaller in size and had space for mummies and some things to take to the afterlife. Then, the pharaohs began to build mounds on their mastabas was to signify their greatness. The pyramids were the first pyramids fancy later pharaohs decided to complete the steps.

The first pyramids were built sharp Gizia. Great Pyramid the highest pyramid of Cheops was the tallest building until the Eiffel Tower was built. The pyramids signified the power and wealth of the pharaohs. These pyramids were built by slaves in Egypt. An estimated 20,000 to 30,000 slaves built the pyramid Gizia for a period of eighty years.

Symbolism pyramid

Although it is generally agreed that pyramids were burial monuments, there seems to be some disagreement among historians about the theological principal on which it was built. One of the most famous theories is that it was a "machine resurrection." She's launch directly the spirit of Pharaoh in the sky The Egyptians believed the dark area of ​​the night sky around which the stars appear to revolve was the physical gateway into the heavens. One of the narrow shafts that extends from the main burial chamber through the entire body of the Great Pyramid points directly towards the center of this part of the sky.

This suggests the pyramid may have been designed to serve as a means to launch magic deceased pharaoh's soul directly into the abode of the gods. All Egyptian pyramids were built on the west bank of the Nile, which as the site of the setting sun was associated with the realm of the dead in Egyptian mythology.

It took more than manual labor to build these majestic pyramids, the architects made a clear pyramidal shape by running ropes from the outer corners to the planned summit, to make sure the stones were positioned correctly and priests astronomers helped choose the pyramids' sites and orientations, so they would be on the appropriate axis in relation to sacred constellations. Push priest stone, each worker would have probably recognized its role in the continuation of the cycle of life and death of the Pharaohs, and thus perpetuating the glory of Egypt.

The obsession with the afterlife:

The ancient Egyptians believed that when the pharaoh died, he became Osiris, king of the dead. The new pharaoh became Horus, god of the sky and the protector of the sun god. This cycle was symbolized by the sunrise and sunset. Part of the spirit of a dead pharaoh, called his ka was believed to remain with his body and it was thought that if the corpse did not have proper care, the former pharaoh would not be able to s 'fulfill his new duties as king of the dead.

If that happened, the cycle would be broken and disaster will befall Egypt. To avoid such a catastrophe, each dead pharaoh was mummified, which preserved his body. Everything the king would need in his afterlife was provided in his grave clay vessels, stone and gold, furniture, food, even doll representations of servants, known shabti.

His body would continue to receive food offerings long after his death. The kings used to begin building their pyramids at the beginning of their reign as it took years to complete the construction of a pyramid. In November 2008, 118 pyramids have been identified. The search for answers and the quest to solve the mysteries is ongoing and mysteries. Us with our modern technology and scientific advancement are still solve the mysteries of the great ancient civilization of Egypt.

Ancient Egypt Tomb Paintings

Ancient Egyptian civilization is considered the most conservative and never rigid. The basic models of Egyptian institutions, beliefs and artistic ideas were formed during the first centuries and has not changed, do not occur until the very end. Knowledge of Egyptian civilization depends majorly on the graves and their contents. The Egyptian concept is that each person must have and a happy life after death, which leads to the vast repertoire of funerary paintings and countless graves in the pyramids. Early development of the art falls can be seen in a fragment of the mural Heirakonpolis with human and animal figures normalized and big white ships.

Ancient Egypt Tomb Paintings
Ancient Egypt Tomb Paintings


Ancient Egypt Tomb Paintings

Ancient Egypt Tomb Paintings


The Old Kingdom developed much further in this area trying to create a replica of the daily life of a man who lives for his soul (ka). Hunting the hippopotamus at the tomb of Ti at Saqqara is a perfect example because of its landscape setting. Representation of all the deceased tomb paintings of the ancient kingdom was passive and static, as a spectator of the action around him. It could be a subtle way of transporting the death of the body, but the continuation of the living soul.


Middle Empire relaxation of standards can be seen in the paintings of the tombs of the princes of Beni Hasan, carved into the rock. A good example is the fresco "Feeding oryx" the rock-cut tomb of Khnum-hotep, where the painter has experienced the effects of shortening and space.
Best of all tomb paintings are derived from the New Kingdom. The formulas of projecting an image on a continuous flat surface, but there are more naturalistic in the figures. The figure of the deceased is not static, but more involved in the whole action, and it is also brought to scale. There relaxation of the rigid rules of representation and issues fixed once thought suitable for tomb paintings.


King Akhenaten, with the start of a new faith-based Aton, gave a new direction to the artistic activity. There was a temporary easing of concern Egyptian life in the beyond, and a greater concern for life on earth. He grew up in a different way, more naturalistic representation of the human figure. Survival Amarna style (like this art has been called) is seen in the tomb of Tutankhamen. The paintings on the panels of a gold chest portray the king's mission to define themselves as the imperial conqueror. The chest represents the king as a hunter and a warrior, a proclamation double his royal power.


While at times of Tutankhamun, the Amarna style had almost disappeared, some features were still persistent practiced, but after the Pharaohs Akhenaton restored the worship of Amun, and returned to the old way of art. Illustrated papyrus rolls have become essential equipment to do everything right graves. The roll of Hu-Nefer in the Theban necropolis is an excellent example that represents the final judgment of the deceased.


Ancient Egypt Tombs

 Ancient Egyptian Tombs

It was believed, in ancient Egypt, a tomb, they are designed and built correctly, has the power to give life and give immortality to its owner died. Thus, for many years could be devoted to the preparation and construction of tombs, which were known to the ancient Egyptians as "houses of eternity." Contractors and supervisors were instructed to perform rituals during the construction and guidelines were provided on where to build, how to design and also materials to use.

Ancient Egyptian Tombs

Ancient Egyptian Tombs

Ancient Egyptian Tombs

Ancient Egyptian Tombs

Ancient Egyptian Tombs

Ancient Egyptian Tombs

Types of Tombs:

Simple Pit-Graves:

A simple hole in the ground which was just large enough to hold the body of the deceased and a few grave goods. Over the years lining of wood or stone, a roof and then small chambers were added. Pit graves were the most common type of graves, usually belonging to commoners.


Mastabas:

These tombs first appeared in the Predynastic period when they were used to protect the burial of Kings, the mastaba being an oblong heaps of stone which would cover the grave. These blocks covered the real tomb - the body was still buried in the ground, a narrow shaft would lead down to a small chamber in the rock - it was here that the body would have its final resting place. After the burial the chamber was sealed and the shaft was filled with rubble.


Rock-cut Chapels:

In these type of tombs, the oblong heap of rough, un-cut stones of the mastaba was replaced by square-cut granite or limestone. The size of the tomb also increased to accommodate more burial goods. These were common during the Middle Kingdom, especially for burial of Kings.


Pyramid-tombs:

Perhaps, the most famous of Egyptian Burial Tombs, pyramids were the grand structures, built as tombs for the Pharaohs of the New Kingdom to last for all eternity. The dead were accompanied by all the things necessary for a comfortable afterlife.


Construction of Tombs:

All tombs had two essential architectural components that reflected their religious function - a burial chamber and a nearby mortuary chapel. The burial chamber was below ground and housed and protected the body and spirit. The mortuary chapel was above ground and was accessible to visitors who would perform rites and make offerings of food and drink for the dead person.

False doors were also placed in these chapels to establish a connection between the worlds of the living and the dead. The design on the door allowed the spirit of the person to move freely between the chapel and the tomb to receive offerings.

Terracotta funerary cones were inscribed with the owner's name and placed above the entrance to the tomb. The pointed end allowed them to be pressed into the plaster above the doorway. Funerary cones were used from the Middle Kingdom onwards but mainly during the New Kingdom, and appeared most often in private tombs around Thebes.

Egyptian burial chambers were never meant to be viewed. They were packed with an astounding array of artwork - sacred and magical. As the point of contact between the mortal and the immortal, art had the power to transport a person, to free them from the silent immobility of death.

It was a way of controlling the chaotic, evil forces in the universe that sought to undermine universal order. Whether mass produced or commissioned, art in the form of painting, sculpture, carving and script had the power to maintain universal order by appealing to the gods to act on behalf of the dead tomb owner and ensure his safe arrival and eternal nourishment in the afterlife.