2012/09/23

Jewelry of Azzah Fahmy

 Jewelry of Azzah Fahmy

I always wanted to be the one who writes about Azza Fahmy. I have followed the  footsteps of her artistic career as the first Egyptian jewelry designer acknowledged by the international markets and as an  innovator in the field of creative design.

Her name makes one think of beauty, richness, and warmth.  And because “Love is Happiness”, all her designs are transformed from being only made of silver and gold embedded with precious and semi-precious stones like Sapphires, Jades, and Garnets, to love charms that bring luck and bliss.

















Azza Fahmy worships the Arabic and Islamic heritage. She has spent thirty years praising its meanings, weaving them into artistic designs and Arabic lines making beautiful pendants, necklaces, earrings, rings, and bracelets full of the incense and magic of the East. Every piece comes into the world bearing her very personal prints.

The words Al-Wesal (connection), Al-Hayam (passion), Al-Hawa (love) and Al-Reda (satisfaction); are the theme of her work. Other words of prayer are call the soul to rest: Al-Baraka (blessing), Ya Fateh Al Abwab (You who opens all doors), Al-Sa’ada (happiness), and Al-Hares Allah (God is The Protector).

Because of that, her inventive and continuous production which never deviated from tradition, actually achieved her what she always dreamed of when she said, “I want my name to be a synonym for the most beautiful jewelry with the most breathtaking designs.

” This paved her way to international markets. She became the first Egyptian jewelry designer acknowledged by the international markets as an equal in the field of creative design. Fahmy was chosen by the international Gold Council to be one of its judges in its international competitions that reward innovators in the field of jewelry design. She also became one of its permanent members.

 Her role intensified after she set a goal to export 80% of her designs outside of Egypt, after having carefully considered the outlets that would merchandize her jewelry. Azza Fahmy was born in the southern governorate of Sohaj, Egypt. She studied Fine Arts and specialized in interior design. Afterwards. becoming an apprentice to a gold and silversmith at
 
the ancient bazaar of Khan El Khalil. There, she became the first woman in Egypt to be permitted into a traditionally male-dominant profession. After years of apprenticeship and intensive research into traditional jewelry forms, she held her first exhibition in 1974, which  launched her career, taking her around the world and placing her among the top professional women in Egypt. Working in silver, gold, and semi-precious stones, her work reflects a wide range of Arabic, Islamic traditions, and periods; including Bedouin, Nubian, Kabilli (Algerian Berber), Umayyad, Egyptian and Syrian Ayyubid and Mamluki, Persian Safavid, Central Asian Seljuk and Timurid, Turkish, Ottoman, and Indian Mogul. Fahmy has also been credited with reviving the use of classical Arabic poetry and Islamic wisdom sayings in the calligraphic inscriptions incorporated into many of her pieces.

Her distinctive style of using Arabic calligraphic inscriptions can be seen molded into gold in the center of square or circular silver pendants; or sometimes for the Middle Eastern touch by with a crescent-shaped silver pendant of Ottoman floral motifs. But largely, Cairo-based Azza Fahmy’s

designs feature a line from the Holy Quraan, Khalil Gibran’s famous literary works, or from the sayings of old Islamic and Arabic figures. Looking at her designs it is clear why the chic Egyptian Fahmy, beginning 30 years ago, made a name for herself as a designer deeply rooted in the Islamic and Arab tradition.

Though her work may have evolved over the years through her travels and research, Fahmy still follows the Arabic style and she describes her designs as imbued with the “spirit of the Arab world.” Yet, Fahmy continues to tweak the ancient and the traditional by incorporating modern and contemporary styles in her work.

At her recent exhibition, her second in the capital after more than a decade, Fahmy elaborates on her individualistic work. “Everything inspires me,” she exclaims with a flourish, “the birds, flowers, and the motifs in a house or a piece of proverb,” she adds. “The present trends in jewelry are lots of colors and

flowers,” says Fahmy. “After many years in this line [of work], your hand automatically shapes what the mind desires. But, I can say my motifs are modern Arabic,” says Fahmy. Her motifs also feature the “cultural message” she wishes to convey and spread to the world; a message of beauty and traditions in the Arab world. She does this not through her Arabic styles but by poems and the sayings. She says, “My designs always create a communication between the wearer and the designer.” The bond is established because wearers are attracted and inspired by the special message nestled into her jewelry designs. They are maxims that they can identify

with and that makes them feel special. In fact, her philosophy in life is is to make everyone happy when they were one of her creations because they know that it is something special. This internationally renowned designer, whose client list boasts many famous and prominent personalities, has also designed costumes and jewelry for theatrical productions and movies. She has held more than 200 exhibitions around the world. In Cairo, Fahmy owns a large factory with nearly 100 people who execute her designs and make her dreams come true.

The prices of her designs vary from LE 500 to LE 20,000 and or more if it’s a specially commissioned work requiring precious stones. But her work is “more special than a Gucci or an Yves Saint Laurent because it’s different,” she says. In America Azza Fahmy has had exhibitions of her work in Washington DC, Denver, Houston, and New York. Her work has also been shown in England, Germany, Italy, Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates, and Jordan. Her commercial clients include the Brooklyn Museum in New York,

the Howard University Art Museum, the Museum of Women in the Arts, the Textile Museum, the Sackler Museum at the Smithsonian Institute in Washington DC, the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology, the University of Illinois Center for the Arts, Williams College Museum of Art, the Brook Museum of Art at Memphis, and the Institute Du Monde Arabe in Paris as well as Harrods and Liberty of London.

Her many international clients include Queen Noor of Jordan, French actress Catherine Deneuve, Madame Jihan Sadat, and the royal families of Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and Bahrain. Woman in Egypt have most always had a capacity to rise up in Egyptian society, even during the most ancient of times. However, that does not mean that it has always been easy, but it is not difficult to see why Azza Fahmy is today one of Egypt's leading women.

2012/09/22

Ancient Egypt

Egypt is a country in Africa and the Middle East. The ancient name of Egypt is "black earth" Kemet meaning. He received his name due to the fertility of black soil found in the plains of the Nile River flowing through Egypt. Egypt is also known for its historical monuments such as the Giza pyramid complex and even the Egyptian civilization holds a lot of importance.

Egypt is a country with a political and cultural significance for the Middle East. Egypt gets its English name from various sources such as Egypt word French, Latin and Greek Aegyptus Aigyptos old. Facts include agriculture, paints, education, religious beliefs and other things that pertain to life and told Egyptian.


Ancient Egypt



Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt


Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt


Agriculture in Egypt


One of the fundamental reasons that have given Egypt to develop, it was the fertile black soil along the Nile River flowing through Egypt. Agriculture was an important activity performed by the ancient Egyptians. Meanwhile, many farmers were experts in growing wheat, vegetables, a variety of fruits and onions.


Other items included agriculture barley, flax, leeks, garlic, beans, grapes, figs, wheat etc was used for making bread, barley for beer and flax has integral part of the textile fiber. Papyrus reeds that grow naturally on the Nile were used making sandals, boats, paper, mats and baskets. Agriculture was conducted in all seasons, except when it flooded. During floods people avoided agriculture.


Animals such as goats, cattle cattle, pigs, ducks, etc. have been preserved by the Egyptian people for their milk, meat and their use in agriculture. Irrigation in ancient Egypt was ranked sump chadouf and dikes. Chadouf was functional in areas of high altitude. Different types of irrigation helped boost both the quality and quantity of crops making Egypt a prosperous nation.




Paintings in Egypt


Egyptian paintings were mainly devoted to a dead person. Paintings were a way of expressing the intention of the author that the deceased must have a good life after death. Many tables show the whole trip after death. In addition, there was a practice of painting things on the graves of the deceased made before his death and that the deceased hoped he continues to do it forever.


Paintings were a source to keep the story alive. The paintings have also shown how the Egyptians lived their lives and their beliefs about death and the afterlife was. Another important aspect of Egyptian paintings was the depiction of animals. The primary colors used for painting were red, green, blue, gold and black.


The Egyptians considered painting as a means of providing the dead support that allows it to continue its journey after death. The essence of Egyptian paintings was his comprehensive and less importance was given to the beautification of the painting. It was very essential for the paint manufacturer to keep everything he permanently. The painting was done by the manufacturer using its memory so that it includes everything in the paint remains intact forever.
 


Costumes worn in Egypt

The clothes were made mainly from white linen. The Egyptian people have also used wool. However, clothes made of wool were forbidden in temples as they were made on animals. Egyptian people believed that the wool should not touch the skin and has been done this way. The men wore loincloths or short skirts. The women wore dresses in general or tight dresses. Some dresses had some straps hiding her breasts and others have exposed.
However, much depends on the way that reigned. Egyptian children while not wearing clothes until they reach adolescence. Fashion clothing was simple in the early years of Egyptian rule, but it has become complex butt of the New Kingdom. Clothing model was determined by the occupation of a person. Farmers wore short skirts while a poor person wearing less clothing.
 


Egyptian pharaohs

Pharaoh is a title for modern ancient Egyptian rulers. However, the Kings were not mentioned as Pharaoh by the ancient Egyptians. "Pharaoh" The term was used primarily by the Greeks and the Hebrews. The Hebrew word par'o reference to the word "pr" in the Egyptian language which means "big house." "Pharaoh" The term is always used in conjunction with the Royal Palace and what it meant for life, prosperity and health of the palace.


Since the fifteenth century BC Pharaoh was used as a synonym for king. However, the first use of "Pharaoh" the word can be traced back to the New Kingdom in the middle of the eighteenth dynasty. After 2000 BC, the pharaoh was mentioned by five names, four of them being his throne names and it was the name given to him at birth.


The word late Egyptian word par'o was rebuilt according to the ancient Greek and Latin words Late pronounced as "Pharaoh." It is from this letter that "Pharaoh", the word has been obtained. The ancient Egyptians believed that Pharaoh was God Horus, the son of God or the sun god Re. On the death of a Pharaoh, it was assumed that it must be united with the sun.


2012/09/20

Ancient Egyptian slaves

 Ancient Egyptian Slavery

Slavery had its roots in ancient civilisations including the Egyptian. Slaves constituted the lowest layer of the social pyramid. Wars were common in the ancient world and prisoners of war were gradually turned into slaves.

But one could also become a slave on account of his inability to pay his debts. Slavery was the direct result of poverty. Voluntary servitude also existed where women offered herself to the temple.

Ancient Egyptian slaves
Ancient Egyptian slaves

Ancient Egyptian slaves
Ancient Egyptian slaves

Ancient Egyptian slaves
Ancient Egyptian slaves

Ancient Egyptian slaves
Ancient Egyptian slaves



Slaves were also acquired through inheritance. Treating a slave well was a moral duty. Though slaves were not happy like the other social classes, they were not persecuted as we may presume.

Slave children were brought up well by the owner of the slave according to accounts of 18th century. Some slaves could achieve higher positions in the society if they had the skills and abilities. Slaves were often tattooed to mark their status.

Hem (Hm), generally translated as 'slave' and originally meaning body, was seemingly a person with lessened rights .The prices of slaves varied over time. During the 25TH dynasty, the average price was about 2.9 debens. But their price could be as low as 20 kit of silver.
Prices were again dependant on their abilities and the uses they were going to be put to.

Many slaves laboured on the estates of the pharaohs, the nobility and the priests. The master might employ a slave in many different manners, such as in domestic service as the guardian of children, cooks, brewers or maids.
They might be used as gardeners or field hands or in the stable. They were sometimes made to work in quarries and mines. Many monuments in ancient Egypt like the pyramids were built by the help of slaves.

However, it is assumed that there was no slave market in Egypt. Rather, individual dealers seem to have approached their customers personally. The transaction was evidenced by commercial documents, executed before officials or a local council, that contained clauses usually used in the sale of valuable commodities.

Egyptian slaves were also known to have been executed to accompany their deceased Pharaoh into the afterlife. Fleeing was not easy for a slave. If they tried to escape, they were captured and put to punishment. But sometimes, slaves were often set free by the masters themselves.

2012/09/16

Ancient Egyptian Wars

The Egyptians had geographical boundaries which offered some security from foreign invasions and threats. Nevertheless, wars were common in the ancient world and so were in Egypt. The inscriptions, paintings, sources of war, specific war related architectural layouts etc constitute the sources of war. Sekhmet was the goddess of war.

Throughout the Old Kingdom, Egypt mounted raids and expeditions against its neighbours, particularly Nubia and Libya, to acquire resources such as gold, building materials, cattle and, of course, slaves.

Ancient Egyptian Wars



Battle of Megiddo between Egypt and Syria took place in 1479 BC when Tuthmosis ruled Egypt. The Egyptians won the battle, capturing over two hundred chariots and two thousand horses from the defeated Syrians.

The Egyptian battle with Hitties took place in 1288 BC in the city of Kadesh in Syria. The city was under the control of Hitties whose objective was to control Syria. The Egyptians were led by Ramesses II, who commanded an army of 20,000 men divided into four divisions.

Each division was named after a major Egyptian deity: Amun, Ptah, Ra, and Sutekh. Ramsses led several charges into the Hittite ranks, killing the king's brother and several other key leaders. The Egyptians were seemingly victorious in the war though they never took the city. A peace treaty was signed by both sides.

Around 1650 BC, Egypt was invaded by the Hykos who introduced them the chariot. They ruled the northern part of the country for over a century from their capital of Avaris. During the second intermediate period, Egyptian soldiers began to be better equipped protective jackets, lighter shields, compound bows and swords.

Ancient Egyptian fashion

Egypt is a country in Africa and the Middle East. The ancient name of Egypt is "black earth" Kemet meaning. He received his name due to the fertility of black soil found in the plains of the Nile River flowing through Egypt.
 
Egypt is also known for its historical monuments such as the Giza pyramid complex and even the Egyptian civilization holds a lot of importance. Egypt is a country with a political and cultural significance for the Middle East. Egypt gets its English name from various sources such as Egypt word French, Latin and Greek Aegyptus Aigyptos old.

Ancient Egyptian fashion
Ancient Egyptian fashion

Ancient Egyptian fashion

Ancient Egyptian fashion

Ancient Egyptian fashion
Ancient Egyptian fashion

It was not essential for the Egyptian people to wear the climate was pleasant unlike Egypt today. Despite this, people do not wear clothes and fashion wholesale clothing remained the same over the years until Egypt some changes were noted in the New Kingdom. Light clothing were preferred by the Egyptian people as a result of hot summers and mild winters.
There were references indicating that even silk, but a small amount was used. Animal skins such as leopard were sometimes worn by priests and pharaohs when they were in the first servants of God.


Feathers were also used to decorate the vestments of Kings and Queens. Women's clothing made from their home. The machine was a key textile made from linen. He was even buried with people. The clothes were made mainly from white linen. Egyptian men treated the early stages of the production machine to harvest the plant. The plants are then beaten and combined to obtain the fibers which were subsequently rejected and followed by other steps. Meanwhile, horizontal looms were in use, but vertical looms have been used in the New Kingdom.


The Egyptian people have also used wool. However, clothes made of wool were forbidden in temples as they were made on animals. Egyptian people believed that the wool should not touch the skin and has been done this way. However, the Egyptians did not use wool so often. The clothes were often hemmed to avoid fraying. Cotton cloth was unknown until the Coptic period. The men wore loincloths or short skirts that hit just above the knees.


 These were made from rectangular piece of linen which was tied around the waist with a knot or a loop. The women wore dresses in general or tight dresses. Some dresses had some straps hiding her breasts and others have exposed. However, much depends on the way that reigned. Egyptian children while not wearing clothes until they reach adolescence. Fashion clothing was simple in the early years of Egyptian rule, but it has become complex butt of the New Kingdom.

 Clothing model was determined by the occupation of a person. Farmers wore short skirts while a poor person wearing less clothing. Clothing worn by people was completed with jewels adorning even the simplest of clothes. We even wore wigs over their natural hair and were users of cosmetics. These cosmetics have improved their characteristics and are believed to contain medicinal qualities and hygiene.

The concept of tailored clothing was not known and people clothes draped around their bodies. Pleating was the main form of embellishment used. The use of colored clothing was rare dyes were difficult to fix a machine without teeth. However, colorful attires were broadcast on the graves of the dead. Only the rich or the royals used woven textiles.


Egyptian Words

How did the ancient Egyptian words and their meanings over time:

Ancient Egyptian words and meanings were represented in hieroglyphs. It was a symbolic language represented in the form of images. Written documents hieroglyphics have been found. The Scriptures have been dated to 3200 BC. Egyptian language development is part of the development of Afro-Asiatic language. Language was used until the 5th century AD. But began to decline in use. Ancient Egyptian words and meanings are still present in many Egyptian relics, artifacts, tombs and temple ruins. Ancient Egyptian language is one of the oldest recorded languages ​​of man in the history of the world.


Language development


Before 2600 BC, hieroglyphs were widely used. It was during the Early Dynastic periods. Naqada II pottery vessels inscriptions of hieroglyphic symbols indicating words.


Language during the Old Kingdom


Much improvement has happened during the period of the Old Kingdom between 2600 BC and 2000 BC. Meanwhile, there has been progress in the development of ancient Egyptian words and meanings. Pyramid Texts reveal rows and rows of hieroglyphs. Elite Egyptians recorded their tomb walls with many statements. Temples were also. These different ways to enter words on different surfaces developed language. Graves had short autobiographies of the deceased. Temples were philosophical sayings. Ideograms have tripled as phonograms to pluralize words. It was also an important development in the language of the ancient Egyptians.


Period demotic


The development of the Egyptian demotic language was profound during the 7th century BC and the 5th century AD. This language has been used for about a thousand years. It was a strong language that has developed over the years. During late demotic, Egyptian demotic language was at an advanced stage of development. Once the Macedonian Empire established their base in conquered Egypt, the use of demotic Egyptian declined. However, between 30 BC and 450 AD, a number of literary objects were written. These include journals, memos, autobiographies, observations, creative expressions and so on. When the Romans invaded Egypt, people began to speak less of the Egyptian demotic language.


Some Egyptian words and their meanings


To understand ancient Egyptian words and their meanings, it is important to understand graphical notations. Different symbols represented different aspects of the environment. The following is a compilation of them limited.


Akhet
It is a symbolic representation of the horizon. This symbol was used to indicate the sunrise and sunset.


Amenta


Amenta was used to mean morbidity. It became a symbol to represent burial.
 

Canopic

Internal parts of the body were removed during the mummification process. They were placed in canopic jars. Canopic jars later went on to represent the four son Horus in hieroglyphs.



There are many ancient Egyptian words and meanings represented as symbols that have not yet been fully discovered.


Egyptian Curse

 Ancient Egyptian Curse


Curses, the former held a very important expectation on the psyche of people, rituals and traditions. We hear swearing to be inscribed on tombs and others, but this was rare.
The text of the Fifth Dynasty pyramids is the one that is intact. A stele was found which belonged to Sarenput I, Elephantine, which was part of the kingdom of Senusret I, it was a curse for diverting intruders and protect the things left at his statue.

Egyptian Curse


A curse, to be efficient enough to be placed in a suitable and correct. For example, if a curse is placed to avoid desecraters entering the tomb, and the curse itself is placed on or near the tomb. The purpose is defeated because, for the misfortune to take effect, the tomb must have been undertaken.
According to the beliefs of ancient Egypt, a curse to be read by the offender to take effect. Therefore, all these curses were written in the rooms before the actual tombs in a more accessible location. You can find the curses placed on doors, walls, stelae, statues, and on the coffin doors, even false.
For a person from ancient Egypt, curses were just another part of their tradition, culture, religion and society. In short, it is a concept very much in tune with their daily lives. All societal obligations, family and religious were instilled in his habits, behavior and interactions.
A curse was just another obligation of Maat, law and order, the norms and mores. It was a warning to all those who dared to act against Maat, rebels and criminals. The ancient Egyptians had the inherent belief in the power of these curses.
A wax figure of Apep, enemy of the sun was used. His name is written in green in the figure, wrapped in papyrus and throw it into the fire. Once it began to burn, they kick the figure four times with the left foot. These wax figures were often placed in tombs.
One of the scourges of the most famous is the curse of the pharaoh. It is believed that the curse will take this person who lay the mummy of Pharaoh. Some curses are to burn or on the walls of tombs ante rooms, as in the mastaba of Khentika Ikhekhi at Saqqara.
However, more than a deterrent to tomb robbers and these curses, these were intended to protect and maintain the sanctity of graves by the priests. These curses became gained worldwide fame after the discovery of the tomb by Howard Carter Tutenkhamen.
Curses were also used as a war strategy in writing the names of enemies on steles, tablets, clay pots, numbers of people in the strings, etc. These were then destroyed and the enemy would have made little and powerless.

2012/09/15

Ancient Egyptian dress

It is common knowledge that the Egyptians historians have taken immense care in their appearance. They were proud of their beauty. Clothing also indicated the social status of an individual. The hot and humid climate of Egypt had obviously influenced the way they dress. This was the reason they were wearing little or not at all. Clothes were mostly thin and lightweight.

Egyptians preferred light clothing made from plant fibers. Especially the clothes were made of linen which is made from a plant called flax blue flowers. White linen required constant washing. It has been washed in the river or canal, rinsed, and then pounded on a stone, and sun-bleached.

Ancient Egyptian dress
Ancient Egyptian dress

Ancient Egyptian dress
Ancient Egyptian dress

Cotton and wool were often used, but not much. Wool was considered unclean. Traces of silk have been found in Egyptian tombs, we can assume that the silk was also worn. Some silk were traded with Asia from 2000 BC. Animal skins, especially leopard skins were spread mainly by priests and the Pharaohs in the exercise of their sacred duty. For kings and queens wore decorative ceremonial clothing once adorned with feathers.

In ancient Egypt, women were primarily responsible for the production of textiles and clothing. Tailoring was a chore, but the woman also worked for aristocrats in spinning and weaving shops. The tools involved in making include knives and needles, two of them were to be molded, shaped or craved. The types of tools used changed over the centuries. The needles were made from wood, bone and metal.


The men wore short hair and shaved their beards and mustaches, while women wore their hair down to his shoulders. The heads are not covered. Wealthy men and women wore long see-through dresses. Better off people wore large white clothes. They wore gold jewelry. Workers wore loincloths made of animal skins and linen. They also wore simple tunic dresses. Most slaves worked naked. Women who work most of the time wearing a kind of short kalasiris. Men who make physical labor wore a loincloth, large galabiyeh-like dresses or if they worked in the water, nothing.


Women do not dress without washing. After washing, they rubbed with perfumed oil, and then they placed a large rectangle of cloth over their heads, met the free corners and tied in a knot below the chest. The toiletries were normal tweezers, razor and comb. Everyday clothing was mostly undecorated white and pleating that is known from the ancient kingdom. The cleanliness was very important to the Egyptians. Washing clothes manually was hard work.


Soap was unknown to the ancient Egyptians, so laundry made of castor oil and saltpeter or some of these chemicals or detergents were used. The machine was beaten, rinsed and drained by pairs of workers. Rich people adorned themselves with gold jewelry and precious stones. Bracelets, earrings, rings and anklets were used. Ordinary people wore necklaces beads brightly colored pottery. Both men and women wore wigs. They made their eyes and lips.


2012/09/13

Ancient Egyptian Weapons

Ancient Egypt civilisation existed at around 3150 BC,in the region of Eastern North Africa. Projectile weapons were used by the ancient Egyptian army, as well as other period military, as standoff weapons, usually used in order to soften up the enemy prior to an infantry assault.

At various times during Egypt's history, different weapons were used, including throw sticks, spears or javelins, bows and arrows and slingshots.



Ancient Egyptian Weapons


Mace:

Stone mace heads were replaced with iron, copper and bronze. It was used as an efficient close contact weapon even from horseback. It was a powerful weapon which could be deadly if the person using it was strong enough.

Bow and arrow:

The bow and arrow is one of ancient Egypt's most crucial weapons, used from Pre dynastic time into the Christian and archaic Islamic periods. It was a ranged weapon which caused a projectile to leave the soldier and strike a target. Some of the first bows that we know of were the "horn bows", made by joining a pair of antelope horns by a central piece of wood.

By the beginning of the Dynastic Period, we find bows that had a single curvature and were made of wood and strung with sinews or strings made of plant fiber. In the pre-dynastic period bows frequently had a double curvature, but during the Old Kingdom a single-arched bow, known as a self (or simple) bow, was adopted.

These were used to fire reed arrows fletched with three feathers and tipped with flint or hardwood, and later, bronze points. The bow itself was usually between one and two meters in length and made up of a wooden rod.

Sling:

Sling was the oldest of Egyptian weapons. As the slings were cheap and made of perishable materials, only a few ancient slingshots have survived. One of its advantages was the easy availability of ammunition in many locations.

When lead became more widely available during the Late Period, sling bullets were cast. These were preferred to pebbles because of their greater weight which made them more effective. They often bore a mark.

Spear:

Consisting of a shaft, usually of wood, with a sharpened head and used as a thrusting weapon or as a missile. The spear was versatile - cheap to produce and easy to use requiring limited training. The spear does not fit comfortably into either the close combat class or the projectile type of weapons.

It could be either. During the Old and Middle Kingdom of Egypt's Dynastic period, it typically consisted of a pointed blade made of copper or flint that was attached to a long wooden shaft by a tang.

However, in the New Kingdom, bronze blades became more common, attached to the shaft by means of a socket. These conventional spears were made for throwing or thrusting, but there was also a form of spear (halberd) which was fitted with an axe blade and thus used for cutting and slashing.

The Throw Stick:

The throw stick does appear to have been used to some extent during Egypt's pre dynastic period as a weapon, but it seems to have not been very effective for this purpose.

Yet, because of their simplicity, skilled infantry continued to use this weapon at least with some regularity through the end of the New Kingdom. It was used extensively for hunting fowl through much of Egypt's dynastic period.

Chariot:

Chariots were introduced after the Asian Hyksos armies invaded the Delta during the period of the Middle Kingdom.

Knives:

Many knives made of flint, copper, and bronze have been found in Egypt. Knives were used as weapons, but also as tools in everyday life for cutting rope, or animal hides.

Sword:

Swords were used for cutting and stabbing. Swords of different lengths were used in battles in ancient Egypt. The blades were made of copper or bronze and attached to wooden handles. Many swords belonging to the pharaoh, or wealthy people were decorated with carved scenes, precious metals and valuable stones.
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