2012/03/23

The Statue of King Ramesses the Great and the God Ptah Tatenen

The Statue of King Ramesses the Great and the God Ptah Tatenen
This statue depicts King Ramesses the Second and the god Ptah Tatenen on his left, seated on a high-backed chair. Ptah Tatenen, surnamed the "Father of the King," has put his arms around the Pharaoh's back. This attitude identifies Ramesses the Second with the god and is a sign of his deification, which all his monuments proclaim.

Ramesses the Second wears the Shendyt kilt, and the striped Nemes headdress protected by a uraeus, or royal cobra. The false beard is attached to his chin by two bands that join the headdress.

He is shown with the characteristic, idealized features of a young man, with narrow, elongated eyes and a full mouth. The god wears a wig and holds the Ankh sign, the symbol of long life.

The back of the chair is engraved with text and the royal cartouches of Ramesses the Second. The Sema-tawy symbol of the unification of the two lands adorns both sides of the chair.

The Seated Group of Ramesses the Great, Isis, and Hathor

The Seated Group of Ramesses the Great, Isis, and Hathor

Ramesses the Second and the goddesses Hathor and Isis are seated on a high-backed seat. He wears the Nemes headdress and the Shendyt kilt. On the belt buckle, the name of Ramesses the Second is written.

Ramesses is portrayed with youthful features. Both goddesses have their left hands on their laps, while the right holds the Ankh sign, symbol of long life. They are wearing tight-fitting dresses with straps.

The cartouche with the name "Usermaatre Setepenre" is engraved on the bottom and top of the seat. The text that adorns the back of the seat records the promises of Hathor and Isis to Ramesses the Second. Hathor promises him millions of Sed Festivals, or jubilees, like the god Ptah Tatenen. Isis promises that the crown shall be placed on his head eternally.

The Sphinx of Ramesses the Second Offering Jar to Amun

The Sphinx of Ramesses the Second Offering Jar to Amun



This very finely modeled limestone statue represents Ramesses the Second in the form of a human-headed sphinx. He wears a striped Nemes headdress, adorned with a frontal cobra; the ceremonial beard is attached to his chin by two bands that join the headdress. The shoulders are covered with a collar and a pleated cloth.

Because the statue was presented to the temple of Amun-Re at Karnak, the hands are holding a vessel with a stopper in the shape of a ram, the sacred animal of Amun-Re and the symbol of fertility.

This type of vessel, made of precious metal, was offered to the god Amun at the festival of the New Year in ancient Egypt. To inaugurate the re-fertilization of Egypt's land by the waters of the Nile, this festival was held on the day that the water of the inundation arrived at Thebes.

The Statue of the great pharaoh Ramesses the Second

The Statue of the great pharaoh Ramesses the Second


This statue was broken into two pieces that were found separately and were not reassembled until the year 1990. A recent study has permitted the reassembly of the two parts.

The statue depicts the great pharaoh Ramesses the Second sitting on a low-backed throne and wearing the Double Crown and the pleated royal kilt.

His name is written on the belt and his titles are engraved on the back pillar of the statue.

The Mummy of Ramesses the Second

The Mummy of Ramesses the Second





The mummy of Ramesses the Second was among those found in the royal cache at Deir el-Bahari. It was completely covered with linen bandages that bear the king's name and epithets in hieratic script.

The mummy has silky hair, which was white at the time of death, but has yellowed from the preservative chemicals. His nostrils were filled with resin and seeds, perhaps to better hold their shape.

According to the X-rays, the king was suffering from dental problems and severe arthritis in his hip joint. Ramesses the Second's mummy was sent to Paris for further studies and preservation. The king most probably died in his late eighties or early nineties.

Wooden Tag found in Tutankhamun tomb

Wooden Tag


Wooden tags found in the tomb of King Tutankhamun, they were a good source of inscriptions, along with other objects that had enough surface area to contain text.

Wooden Tag

The contents of boxes were described on the tags. Words, such as "gold rings" or "clothes," were written in hieratic script on the wooden tags.



Relief of the scribes from the tomb of Horemheb

Relief of the scribes from the tomb of Horemheb




A fragment of a wall relief showing scribes intent on writing, probably under dictation, holding their tablets in their left hand and their pens in their right. 

The relief was part of a more elaborate composition from the tomb of Horemheb.

The Statue of the Serpent God Neterankh


The serpent Neterankh, or the Living God, was one of the deities in charge of protecting the regions of the underworld and defending the sun god as he passed through each night.

The Statue of the Serpent God Neterankh

This statue is made of gilded wood and stands on a wooden base darkened with varnish. The eyes are made of either quartz, rock crystal, or translucent glass and are set in metal sockets


Statue of Horus the Great


Another manifestation of the falcon deity was Horus the Great. He was the lord of the sun, the patron god of kingship and state, and the son of Osiris and Isis.

Statue of Horus the Great

Made of gilded wood, this figure of the god is in mummiform with an exquisitely detailed falcon's head.

Tutankhamun Colossal Statue

The Colossal Statue of Tutankhamun

The Colossal Statue of Tutankhamun


This painted quartzite statue depicts King Tutankhamun. Despite its state of preservation, the facial features of the king, enhanced with color, preserve a youthful and serene expression.

He wears the Nemes headdress, which was once topped by the double crown and adorned with the frontal cobra. The rest of his clothing includes a ceremonial beard, broad collar and the traditional pleated kilt.

A dagger with a falcon-headed handle is slipped under his belt, which is decorated with a pattern of broken lines. On the belt buckle, the name of the young king was replaced by that of King Horemheb.

FUNERARY TEXT - BOOK OF THE DEAD

FUNERARY TEXT -  BOOK OF THE DEAD




[The papyrus, which was part of the collection of the English consul-general in Alexandrië Henry Salt, was catalogued together with the rest of the collection by Athanasi and auctioned in 1935 at Sotheby's in London.  In this auction catalogue Kenna's Book of the Death was described as being an 'exceptional papyrus' which caused a crowd of admirers to bid against each other.  It was finally acquired for 168 pounds by C. J. C. Reuvens, the first director of the Leiden Museum of Antiquities.  Unfortunately, the overworked Reuvens was probably seized by stress and emotions when he died on his way back to the Netherlands, with the Book of the Death in his luggage.]



De papyrus, die deel uitmaakte van de verzameling van de Engelse consul-generaal te Alexandrië Henry Salt, werd na zijn dood samen met de rest van zijn collectie die hij zelf niet meer heeft kunnen verkopen gecatalogiseerd door Athanasi en in 1835 bij Sotheby's in London geveild. In deze veilingcatalogus werd Kenna's Dodenboek omschreven als een 'buitengewone papyrus' waardoor veel bewonderaars tegen elkaar opboden.  Het handschrift is uiteindelijk voor 168 pond in handen van C. J. C. Reuvens gekomen, de eerste directeur van het Leidse Rijksmuseum van Oudheden.  Blijkbaar waren alle emoties en stress de overwerkte Reuvens teveel geworden en werd hij, op zijn terugweg naar Nederland, met het Dodenboek in zijn bagage zelf door de dood overvallen.


Gilded Shrine of Tutankhamun

Gilded and Incised Naos or Shrine of Tutankhamun


This small shrine, made of wood and covered with thick gold, rests on a silver-plated sledge. The exterior and the double doors are decorated with scenes showing the king and his wife hunting and enjoying life.

 Gilded and Incised Naos or Shrine of Tutankhamun

The scenes on the double doors are surrounded by friezes of decorations, royal cartouches, and rekhyt birds. Rekhyt birds are lapwings or plovers with human arms, that symbolize all the people ruled by the king Tutankhamun.

Inside the shrine, an ebony pedestal and back pillar bearing the king's name indicated that it had once housed a statue, perhaps that of the goddess Weret-Hekau, Great of Magic, who is mentioned several times in the texts, or a statue of the king himself.


Two Model Boats of Tutankhamun

Two Model Boats of Tutankhamun


The tomb of Tutankhamun contained 35 wooden models of boats that were stored with his equipment for the symbolic transportation of the king and the sun god through the sky of the Underworld.

These models give us a clear idea of the different kinds and forms of boats used in ancient Egypt. They show masts, sails, steering paddles and single or double storied cabins, decorated with colored geometric motifs. Some have stairs; others are provided with kiosks for the lookouts.

Two Model Boats of Tutankhamun


Some were made for the transportation of the sun god. One of the models exhibited here is an imitation of the papyrus canoe that was usually used for sailing or fishing in the canals of the Delta marshes.

Hes Vase, or Magical Object


This puzzling object was found in the tomb of Tutankhamun (his tomb) It is a slender, black-varnished vase, of a type called the Hes vase. It is placed between two wooden pylons, or gateways, the upper parts of which are decorated with a cornice. The whole group is standing on a wooden base.

Hes Vase, or Magical Object

This kind of vase was regularly used in ancient Egypt in libation ceremonies and for ritual purification. Nevertheless, the shape of these objects is still as obscure as their significance. Therefore, Egyptologists frequently classified them as "magical objects."

Hes Vase with Blue and Black Painted Decorations


This ritual vase in the form of the hieroglyphic Hes sign has a high foot, short neck, long spout, and wide rim with a pyramid-shaped lid.

These vases were used ritually during all periods to pour libations, or liquid offerings, to the gods.

Hes Vase with Blue and Black Painted Decorations

This pottery vase is unique because of its highly carved spout and blue and black painted decorations.

Ritual Adze Handle of Tutankhamun


This bronze handle belonged to a fine ritual adze, an axlike tool with a curved blade at right angles to the handle, that was used for shaping wood. The precious metal blade, probably gold or silver, was ripped off.

Ritual Adze Handle of Tutankhamun

The handle, which still retains its gold binding, is inlaid in gold with the titles and names of King Tutankhamun.

 "the Good God, the Lord of the Two Lands, Neb-khepru-Re, son of Re his beloved, Tutankhamun,
He who is given eternal life."

It shows the skill of the workers in precious metals who lived during his reign.



Blue Faience Bowl


The polished blue faience bowl was typically used as a votive object in temples and shrines and was included in funerary equipment.

Similar bowls were clearly associated with the goddess Hathor as part of her role as a deity of the necropolis. She was called the "Mistress of turquoise," "Mistress of lapis lazuli," and "Mistress of the malachite land."

Blue Faience Bowl


The majority of these bowls, when discovered, were empty. However, a few were found containing milk, which implies that the bowls were used for offerings to the goddesses Hathor, Isis, or Nut in their roles as nourishing and protective deities.


Torque or Metal Collar


This unusual metal collar, or torque, consists of beads fixed on a copper or bronze hoop. The white beads are alabaster, inlaid with quartz or red-painted glass. 

Torque or Metal Collar

The black beads are stone or glass inlaid with gold. The collar could be adjusted to fit different sized necks.


Leopard Skin Decorated with Golden Stars


This leopard skin is studded with golden stars and attached to a leopard head made of wood and covered with a sheet of gold. A representation of the leopard's paws is still in place.

Leopard Skin Decorated with Golden Stars


Some ranks of the Egyptian priesthood wore leopard-skin mantles, or cloaks, while performing their official duties, marking them as high priest.

Tutankhamun, who was in theory the high priest of every god, was buried with this mantle.




The Ebony Ceremonial Fan of Tutankhamun

The Ebony Ceremonial Fan of Tutankhamun

The Ebony Ceremonial Fan of Tutankhamun


Fans of this kind were carried in Pharaonic processions next to the throne. They always appear on both sides of the king or immediately behind him. In fact, the Fan Bearer held what was considered to be one of the highest positions among court officials.

This fan stock is ebony veneered with decorative motifs made of tree bark. Its top is shaped like a papyrus umbel, or petal cluster, with its calyces, or outer leaves, and stem. At the lower end, a knob in the form of an inverted papyrus umbel, or petal cluster, of the lotus is found. The ostrich feathers of this fan were so decayed that only the shafts of the feathers remained. The top of the fan is shaped like an outstretched hand with fingers apart.

The stock at the top into which the quills were inserted show that it once held 48 feathers. The palm of the fan contains the cartouche of the King, "Neb Kheperu Ra."

Folding Stool of Wood and Ivory


This folding stool from the Eighteenth Dynasty is made from wood and ivory. A leather cushion, which has disintegrated, was meant to cover the seat.

Folding Stool of Wood and Ivory

The legs, in the shape of duck heads and necks, were made from ivory to emphasize the details of the duck's face. There are two wooden supports between the duck's beaks on which the stool rests.

Camping Stool with Top Imitating Leopard Skin


This folding wooden stool of ebony is inlaid with ivory to look as if it is covered with leopard skin. The paws hang from the corners, while the tail is in the middle of the right side.

Camping Stool with Top Imitating Leopard Skin

The legs of the stool are in the shape of duck necks and heads, a design commonly used for folding stools, although this one is not flexible.

The duck heads rest on two supports that were made of gilded wood and covered with copper.

White Stuccoed Stool with String Seat

White Stuccoed Stool with String Seat

White Stuccoed Stool with String Seat


This white, stuccoed stool is covered with a folded lattice of string supported on each side by three thin struts of wood.

Carpenters sat on stools with three legs, which allowed the stools to rest evenly on the workshop floor during work time. The folding stool was originated during the Middle Kingdom.

Decorated Stool with Symbol of Upper and Lower Egypt


The four sides of this wooden stool, painted white, are decorated with the symbol of the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt.

Stool Decorated with Symbol of Upper and Lower Egypt

 It is gilded with gold sheet. The chair's legs were modeled to look like the legs of a lion.

The elements of the stool are joined to each other with copper pins.

Box with Rounded Lid


This painted white box was the third in a group of five discovered in the section of the tomb of Tutankhamun called the Treasury.

The battens, or strips of wood, that support the base of the box were shaped to fill in between the front and the back legs. 



They give the appearance to the outer surface of quadrant molding, similar to a quarter circle. The box contained a stone, an anklet, a pair of slippers, and the lid of a small jewelry box.

Two Wooden Shrines


These two wooden shrines are varnished with black resin and contain blue faience cups. These cups are filled respectively with natron, a hydrous native sodium carbonate that was used in embalming, and with resin.

Two Wooden Shrines

They were placed in the northwestern corner of the Burial Chamber of King Tutankhamun. The shrines are attached to each other by two stone feathers symbolizing the feathers of justice of the goddess Maat.

The shrines, which belong to the goddesses Nekhbet and Wadjet, are considered to be symbols of the Two Lands, Upper and Lower Egypt.

Wooden Chest for Holding Small Items


Aside from the decorated chests which once held the garments and accessories of Tutankhamun, there were many other undecorated chests used for the preservation of minor items.

This one is from this mentioned kind. It is rectangular shape and has four knobs, inscribed with the name of the king, used to open and close the lid.

Wooden Chest for Holding Small Items


The chest is painted in white which gives an attractive contrast between the white and the brown color of the knobs. The base is made of open work wood that add an elegant appearance to the box.

It is worth mentioning that this shape of chest is still used till now at the Egyptian villages to keep the new clothes of the bride.

Square Box for Storing Clothes


This wooden box, used to store clothes, is almost square in shape.

The frame is a dark-grain timber that was left unpainted; the panels were finished with red paint.

Square Box for Storing Clothes

Both handles are painted black and have the name of the king in cartouches.

Box and Lid with Painted Red Panels



This box, used for clothes, is very roughly made. The poor quality wood used in its construction has been concealed by a sizeable quantity of filler.

The framework is of a dark-grained timber that was left unpainted, while the panels are finished with red paint.

Box and Lid with Painted Red Panels

The handles are painted black and are engraved with cartouches of the king. These cartouches are filled with yellow pigment.

Box Decorated with Tyet and Djed Signs


This rectangular box was found in the annex of King Tutankhamun's tomb. It stands on four slim elegant legs and the panels are made of cedar wood.

At the bottom of the box is an alternating decoration of fretwork hieroglyphs. The Tyet sign, the symbol of the blood of Isis as well as the knot in the girdle of Isis, or "a magical amulet for protection," and the Djed sign, which means stability, or "the backbone of the god Osiris," stand on the "Neb" sign for gold.

Box Decorated with Tyet and Djed Signs

The inside of the box is divided into two sections and it possibly contained the king's linen. Both the mushroom-shaped handles of the box and the lid are gilded wood and have been incised with the king's cartouches.

Box with Compartment and Lid with Hieratic Inscription


This wooden box, painted white, is divided into compartments.

The Hieratic text on the lid says it belonged to King Tutankhamun when he was a child.

Box with Compartment and Lid with Hieratic Inscription

It has a rectangular shape and may have been used for jewelry or toiletries.

From the text, we know that it probably contained razors, alabaster jars, and other toiletries.

Box Decorated with Symbols in Ivory and Painted Wood


This highly decorated box stands on four short legs covered in silver. The sides are divided by horizontal ivory strips into upper and lower rectangular panels.

These ivory panels, which are also used to imitate a framework construction, are decorated with Hieroglyphic text between a pair of ruled lines filled with black paint.

Box Decorated with Symbols in Ivory and Painted Wood

Each side panel is decorated with hieroglyphs. The Ankh, sign of eternal life, and "Was" scepter, symbol of prosperity and well-being, stand on the "Neb" sign for gold.

The interior of the box is divided into 16 rectangular compartments, which were designed to hold either gold or silver cosmetic vessels.

Ivory Jewel Box


This ivory jewel box is a masterpiece of art and craftsmanship. Some of the royal pieces of jewelry were found inside it.

The lid has two golden hinges. There are also two golden knobs, one on top of the lid and the other on the side.

A string would be wound around the knobs and then sealed using wet mud to close the box and secure the contents.

Ivory Jewel Box

The royal cartouches are carved in fine relief on the lid and on the front panel. The center of the back panel is decorated by a floral column.

A cursive Hieratic text in black ink refers to the contents of the chest as "rings for the burial ceremony."

Box with Very Fine Inlay of Ebony and Ivory



This red wooden box is inlaid with ivory and ebony. It was found in the treasury room of the tomb of Tutankhamun.

Its vaulted lid is decorated with vertical hieroglyphic lines written in ink indicating that it once contained 15 pieces of jewelry. It is also decorated with some geometric squares. 

Box with Very Fine Inlay of Ebony and Ivory

 Box with Very Fine Inlay of Ebony and Ivory

The major feature of this box is the marquetry work, or inlay of wood that forms a pictorial image. It was applied to the sides and lid to form imitation panels.


Tutankhamun Papyrus Box

Small Papyrus Box of Tutankhamun


This unique small box is made of papyrus fiber. It is from the collection of Tutankhamun. The scenes on it suggest it might have been made to keep the ceremonial objects of the king's coronation, or ceremony of being crowned.

Small Papyrus Box of Tutankhamun


On the lid, the king is kneeling in the middle on a basket. He is wearing the double crown of Upper and Lower Egypt. He is kneeling between Amun-Re, king of the gods, and his wife, the goddess Mut, who helps in the ceremony.

The side shows a scene of the coronation by Ptah, god of creation and patron deity of artists and craftsmen, and his wife the lioness Sekhmet, goddess of war. The main coronation ceremony traditionally took place in the temple of Ptah at Memphis.

Box with Wig Support


Made for the king's headdress, this plain rectangular wooden case with hinged lid contained a block-headed wig support.

Its panels are decorated with simple blue and yellow faience and semitranslucent calcite ornaments.

Box with Wig Support

The remnants of the king's cap were found in the bottom of the box. Unfortunately, the cloth had decayed, but the remnants enabled us to record the order of the beads and the form of the skullcap.

Box with Blue Panels for Holding Jewelry


Standing on long legs, this wooden box is decorated with panels of blue faience and ornamented with gilded gesso.

On the long sides are lines of the king's names flanked by uraei, the royal cobras.

Box with Blue Panels for Holding Jewelry


The knobs are made of violet faience with the names of the king Tutankhamun in pale blue.

This box was used to hold the jewels and the treasures of the king, but unfortunately it was ransacked.

Wooden Box with Six Compartments for Jewelry

Wooden Box with Six Compartments for Jewelry





This wooden box, which stands on tall legs, is inlaid with ebony and ivory and was intended to be used as a container for jewelry. 


 


It was also provided with a second internal lid with ivory fastening knobs.

The interior of the box is divided into six compartments.

Box on Tall Legs with Decoration


This elaborate rectangular box was found in the tomb of Tutankhamun. It contained four headrests and fragments of a decayed robe. It stands on four slim elegant legs.

Box on Tall Legs with Decoration

Below the bottom of the box is an ebony brace; between the space formed by this and the lower rails of the box is an alternating decoration of fretwork hieroglyphs consisting of the Ankh, "Was," and Neb signs.

The lid is made of a rectangular ebony framework with a cross-rail dividing it into two panels.