2012/03/26

The Plan of King Tutankhamun's Tomb

The Annex of Tutankhamun Tomb

The Annex of The Tomb of King Tutankhamun and its Objects

   
On their first day in the tomb, 27 November 1922, Lord Carnarvon and Howard Carter saw the annex through a hole looters. The chaos of this storeroom convinced to delay his game until the rest of the tomb was empty, five years later.

Despite being the smallest of the four rooms in a funerary complex of Tutankhamen, the appendix contains nearly half of the total contents of the tomb. It was stacked with hundreds of reed baskets and pottery jars, containing provisions for the dead king. Royal furniture and the boxes were scattered among developed these ordinary objects.

The Annex of Tutankhamun Tomb


The Annex of Tutankhamun Tomb

The Annex of Tutankhamun Tomb



Footprints and fingerprints were everywhere, some belonging to thieves and other cemetery officials who tried to restore order in the grave. Apparently, the guards were added to the confusion in the appendix by using it as a dumping ground for anything that could not be returned to its rightful place in other rooms. Carter guessed that many of the finest pieces in this simple pantry originally belonged in more formal rooms of the tomb.

The ground was littered with Annex more than three feet below the door, and a complex, almost acrobatic operation was necessary to clear a small working space inside. held by the sling around their chest, archaeologists swung above the threshold to remove the first parts. Even after standing room had been cleared, the objects were still in precarious piles, which were braced to prevent collapse.


When the parasite was last saved and removed from the schedule, while the tomb was empty - except for the mummy of the pharaoh's sarcophagus resting there. It was the spring of 1928, and six and a half years had passed since the workers had discovered the entrance steps. Four years of laboratory work remained before the last treasures of Tutankhamen would leave the Valley of the Kings in 1932.



The Antechamber of Tutankhamun Tomb

The antechamber of the tomb of King Tutankhamun and objects
 
 
At noon, November 27, 1922, the sealed door at the end of the entrance passage had been registered, then demolished. Carnarvon party came in, having to step on the white lotus chalice that was on the threshold. The initial inspection Carter doubts resolved the exact nature of the discovery: this room was certainly the antechamber of the royal tomb. In addition, the random placement of the furniture has indicated that the antechamber had been ransacked by thieves and hastily rearranged by guards.

The Antechamber of Tutankhamun Tomb

Carter was assigned to each object a number of records retention and Comments; photographs of Burton, these inventory numbers appear on small cards. Extent from twenty to six by twelve feet, the hall was the largest room in the tomb. He held a bewildering array of two objects both secular and religious. Three major animal-shaped sofa is aligned west wall. Stacked one above and below them were several royal thrones and stools ordinary wicker. Alabaster vases for precious ointments stood beside common containers oval cooked duck. Flat chests for bows and arrows alternated with boxes and jeweled scepters.



Parts of four tanks were crammed into the southeast corner. The burial party had dismantled the tanks to get them in the narrow entrance corridor. Behind the sofa in the southwest corner was a looter hole in another small room. Carter has decided to delay this room clearing, which he called the Annex, until the rest of the tomb was empty. The real fascination lay with the north wall of the antechamber. There, two life-size statues of the king standing facing each other, keeping a sealed door. As Carter said, "Visions of the room after room, each packed with items such as the one we had seen, crossed our minds and left us breathless." The contents of the antechamber were incredibly confused. 


After robbery old, officials of the necropolis was quickly tried to restore some semblance of order, stuffing items into containers closest at hand. Indeed, those responsible for negligence caused damage almost as that thieves vandalized. Time had taken its toll. Carter described the leather harness tanks as having turned to glue, drop on their wheels, axles and frames. Fabric sheets become dust, and pearls had fallen in a heap of sense after their rotten thread chain.

The smaller objects were removed first, which makes space for the dismantling of large sofas and disentangling of the tanks stripped. It took seven weeks, just to save and delete objects. Years of treatment and study in the field laboratory would be needed before most tracks could leave the Valley of the Kings.
 

 The Antechamber of Tutankhamun Tomb

The Antechamber of Tutankhamun Tomb
The Antechamber of Tutankhamun Tomb
  

 The Antechamber of Tutankhamun Tomb


The Antechamber of Tutankhamun Tomb




The Treasury of Tutankhamun Tomb

The Treasury of The Tomb of King Tutankhamun and its Objects

The Canopic Shrine

Six feet, six inches high, the canopic shrine dominated the treasure. This monument of gilded wood held Tutankhamun's internal organs. Since mummification was essentially a process of drying the body, the parts most likely to decay were first removed by an incision in the side of the body. Tutankhamun's viscera were then placed in four coffins miniature gold, each under the protection of a different goddess Isis - the liver; Nephthys - the lungs; Neith - the stomach; Selket - the intestines. These four goddesses appear two wooden statues that guarded the golden monuments and reliefs on its inner sanctum. The heart was left in place in the body.

Carter first saw the treasure February 17, 1923, but delayed work on it until the next burial chamber was cleared. In the winter of 1926-1927, he emptied the treasury of small objects, it is dismantled to make way for the canopic shrine complex. Removing the canopy of gilded wood and outer walls of the sanctuary revealed the canopic chest, carved from a single block of alabaster. In the coffins were small gold holders of the internal organs of the king.
 

The Treasury of Tutankhamun Tomb



 The Treasury of Tutankhamun Tomb


The statues of the gods

Despite its promise of eternal life, hell was full of dangers that had to be overcome. A variety of gods were called to help the deceased in his precarious journey to the afterlife. The treasure of Tutankhamun's tomb was filled with over fifty images of these deities. Some were carved, according to tradition, like the king himself. Others took the form of sacred animals such as the cobra Netjerankh god.


The Treasury of Tutankhamun TombThe Treasury of Tutankhamun Tomb The Treasury of Tutankhamun Tomb

The boxes and jewelry

An open room adjacent to the burial chamber, the treasury contained mostly funerary equipment - ritual jewelery, model boats for the journey through the underworld, the images of gods, and statues shawabty to do work of the king in the beyond. The large, gilded canopic shrine held Tutankhamun's internal organs.

Although thieves had entered the treasure in ancient times, stole small objects and jewelry, leaving the whole room more or less in its original order. Carter discovered this piece in February 1923, but it looped for three and a half years while releasing the burial chamber of its shrines and coffins.

The Treasury of Tutankhamun Tomb


The Treasury of Tutankhamun Tomb



The Shawabty and Portrait Figures

The Treasury held pictures of Tutankhamen many rituals. many of them were portraits, providing resting places for the mind. Others were shawabtys or replacement workers who were to perform tasks like magic the king in the afterlife. Carter said they found 413 shawabtys, equipped with miniature tools, in the tomb of. Made of wood, stone or clay, these statuettes mummiform artistic quality varied considerably.



The Burial Chamber of Tutankhamun Tomb

 The Burial Chamber of The Tomb of King Tutankhamun and its Objects


The sarcophagus and coffins

In February 1924, after the dismantling of the sanctuaries, the team of Carter lifted the lid of the sarcophagus of quartzite. It was a precarious operation, because the lid, weighing a ton and a quarter, had cracked in half and was repaired at the time of burial. Before you start to open the coffins, however, Carter had to devote a year and a half to finish work on objects already stored in the field laboratory.  Seven feet, four inches long, the outer coffin had two small coffins nested well inside. All three coffins were mummified and covered with a feather design. Their striped caps worn by the vulture and cobra goddesses of Upper and Lower Egypt. The plaited false beard of divinity adorned their chins, and each coffin held in his arms crossed, lacrosse and scepters scourges.

The Burial Chamber of Tutankhamun Tomb 

The Burial Chamber of Tutankhamun Tomb
  
The Burial Chamber of Tutankhamun Tomb

Although the symbolism was similar in each case, different finish. The surface of the outer coffin was modeled in low relief plaster gilded wood, while the coffin of the middle, also wooden, was inlaid with semiprecious stones and colored glass inlay. The third coffin, or internal models were engraved by thin lines on the gold surface. Opening of the coffins was dangerous in the confined space of the burial chamber.  


Complex, the counterweight pulley system was designed to calm the bulky coffins. As the ups and downs of each were separated, both parties had to be removed entirely in the laboratory, or the bottom should be lowered back into the sarcophagus. An unforeseen difficulty was the heaviness of the three coffins and mummies, combined, they weigh over a ton and a half.

The wreaths and garlands adorning the funeral coffins included olive, willow, mandrake, blueberries and blue water lily.   The analysis of the growing seasons of these plants showed that Tutankhamun was buried somewhere between mid-March and late April.
When the coffins were removed, Carter said the case was found lying in the double bottom of the sarcophagus. The container holding the remains of embalming ointments.  

These fragrance oils, poured onto the body at the funeral, had hardened with age and now stuck inside the coffins and the mummy together. Prudent application and long heat and chemicals that eventually softened enough mass to the parties to separate. Cleaning ointments blackened the third coffin solved the mystery of the truck. Inlaid with semiprecious stones, inside the coffin was formed of solid gold one-tenth to one-eighth inch thick.

 
Shrines and Objects

Most of the objects removed from the burial chamber was designed specifically for the last rites and the afterlife. Murals on the walls of the room - the only one in the tomb to be decorated - represented at the funeral ceremony. These paintings, however, could not be seen clearly until the burial chamber was emptied. Once found, the room was filled almost to the ceiling by a huge gilded wooden shrine inlaid with ceramic tiles blue.

The Burial Chamber of Tutankhamun Tomb

The Burial Chamber of Tutankhamun Tomb

The Burial Chamber of Tutankhamun Tomb



Upon entry of the burial chamber 17 February 1923, Carter opened the doors of this sanctuary unsealed. He saw another sanctuary doors were locked and sealed, which proves that the thieves had not reached the mummy inside. In all, four gilded shrines and a pall-draped canopy nested within another, the protection of the sarcophagus. Each sanctuary has taken the form of a traditional Egyptian shrine, covered with bas-reliefs and inscriptions from sacred texts.


Modern scaffolding helped dismantle the fragile sanctuaries. Work began in November 1923 and continued for four months. The sections of wall and roof, some weighing as much as three quarters of a ton, were extremely fragile. Their 2 1/4 inch thick planks of wood had fallen, and their beautiful gilded bas-reliefs were crumbling.


After removing the sanctuaries of the world's sarcophagus, Carter deferred work on them for four years. In 1928, when the rest of the tomb was cleared, he again turned his attention to the sanctuaries. They need two full seasons of treatment to become strong enough to withstand transport to the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.

The gold mask and jewelry


The design of Tutankhamun's mummy was similar to that of his coffins. During his head and his shoulders was a funerary mask with the same patterns used on the three caskets: false beard, hair streaked, and the cobra and vulture goddesses. As the coffin inside, golden mask was inlaid with precious stones and glass on the precious metal. Golden hands, attached to the packaging, has held the leadership of the king and the scourge, while bands of jewels inscribed with prayers set the top layer of bandages.

The Burial Chamber of Tutankhamun Tomb 

The Burial Chamber of Tutankhamun Tomb

The Burial Chamber of Tutankhamun Tomb

The Burial Chamber of Tutankhamun Tomb

The Burial Chamber of Tutankhamun Tomb
 
Exquisite necklaces, scarabs, necklaces and bracelets were carefully placed among the closely woven linen bandages. A total of 143 jewels and amulets were found on the body or in its packaging. On the morning of November 11, 1925, an international team of anatomists and archeologists have begun consideration of the mummy, the operation took eight months. The medical inspection showed that Tutankhamun was five feet six inches tall and died at the age of eighteen or nineteen. No idea has been found to explain his untimely death, but several family members are known to have died while relatively young also.


Oils and perfumes poured over the mummy contained corrosive elements. These same ointments, made in honor Tutankhamun, had burned his remains. After consideration, the mummy was reburied in the outer coffin, and this, in turn, was replaced in the stone sarcophagus. Now, as for 3300 years, Tutankhamun continued to sit in the wings encompassing goddesses carved on his sarcophagus.



The Book of the Dead of Ancient Egyptian

 The Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead

 The Book of the Dead of Ancient Egyptian

 The Book of the Dead (known to the ancient Egyptians as prt m hrw 'Coming Forth by Day') One of the best preserved copies of The Book of the Dead comes from 'The Papyrus of Ani', written in 1240 BC. This version of the book is filled with beautiful pictures of Ani and his wife as they travel through the land of the dead, and to the Halls of Ma'ati and beyond.


The papyrus goes through many of the spells used to be able to survive the afterlife, as well as hymns of praise various gods. This collection has come to be known as The Book of the Dead, though it is not a book, per se. The spells were written both on papyrus and on the walls of tombs.

Ani's papyrus is full of hymns and praises to the deities (Osiris, Ra and Hathor) and various speeches and spells to get him past the tests and judgements of the underworld. The texts relating to the weighing of the heart in the Halls of Ma'ati where Ani's heart is proven to be the same weight as the feather.
Thoth, the judge of right and truth of the Great Company of the Gods who are in the presence of Osiris, saith: Hear ye this judgment. The heart of Osiris hath in very truth been weighed, and his Heart-soul hath borne testimony on his behalf; his heart hath been found right by the trial in the Great Balance. There hath not been found any wickedness in him; he hath not wasted the offerings which have been made in the temples; he hath not committed any evil act; and he hath not set his mouth in motion with words of evil whilst he was upon earth.

The gods laud Ani, saying that he speaks the truth, and that he shall escapes the jaws of Ammut.

The Book of the Dead of Ancient EgyptianThe Book of the Dead of Ancient Egyptian

The Great Company of the Gods say to Thoth who dwelleth in Khemenu: That which cometh forth from thy mouth shall be declared true. The Osiris the scribe Ani, whose word is true, is holy and righteous. He hath not committed any sin, and he hath done no evil against us. The devourer Ammut shall not be permitted to prevail over him. Meat offerings and admittance into the presence of the god Osiris shall be granted unto him, together with an abiding habitation in the Field of Offerings (Sekhet-hetepet), as unto the Followers of Horus.

The gods welcome Ani, where Horus ushers him into the presence of Osiris.

Horus, the son of Isis, saith: I have come to thee, O Un-Nefer, and I have brought unto thee the Osiris Ani. His heart is righteous, and it hath come forth from the Balance; it hath not sinned against any god or any goddess. Thoth hath weighed it according to the decree pronounced unto him by the Company of the Gods, and it is most true and righteous. Grant thou that cakes and ale may be given unto him, and let him appear in the presence of the god Osiris, and let him be like into the Followers of Horus for ever and ever.

Afterwards, Ani has spells to recite to allow him past the seven 'Arit', so he can be transported to live among the blessed spirits in the domain of Osiris. The Arit are guarded by a doorkeeper, a watcher and a herald. Knowing the name of these guardians, and knowing the spell would allow one to pass through.

If [these] words be recited by the spirit when he shall come to the Seven Arits, and as he entereth the doors, he shall neither be turned back nor repulsed before Osiris, and he shall be made to have his being among the blessed spirits, and to have dominion among the ancestral followers of Osiris. If these things be done for any spirit he shall have his being in that place like a lord of eternity in one body with Osiris, and at no place shall any being contend against him.

The next ordeal was to pass the 'Pylons of the House of Osiris', and here, too, knowing the name and the spell would allow Ani to pass through. At each of the twenty one Pylons, Ani had to recite the correct spell before continuing on to Osiris.

[And the god Osiris saith:] "Thou hast come, thou shalt be a favoured one in Tetu, O Osiris Auf-ankh, whose word is truth, the son of the lady Shert-en-Menu, whose word is truth."

Following these trials are a number of spells to be said for the deceased at his funeral, complete with instructions to the priests who would read the papyrus over the body. Here, for instance, is 'The Chapter of Not Letting the Heart of the Osiris, The Assessor of the Divine Offerings of all the Gods, Ani, Whose Word is Truth Before Osiris, Be Driven Back from Him in Khert-Neter':



The Book of the Dead of Ancient EgyptianThe Book of the Dead of Ancient Egyptian


He saith:- My heart of my mother. My heart of my mother. My heart-case of my transformations. Let not any one stand up to bear testimony against me. Let no one drive me away from the Tchatcha Chiefs. Let no one make thee to fall away from me in the presence of the Keeper of the Balance. Thou art my ka the dweller in my body, the god Khnemu who makest sound my members. Mayest thou appear in the place of happiness whither we go. Let not make my name to stink Shenit Chiefs, who make men to be stable. [Let it be satisfactory unto us, and let the listening be satisfactory unto us, and let there be joy of heart to us at the weighing of words. Let not lies be told against me before the Great God, the Lord of Amentet. Verily, how great shalt thou be when thou risest up in triumph!]

These words are to be said over a scarab of green stone encircled with a band of refined copper, and [having] a ring of silver; which shall be placed on the neck of the Khu (the deceased), etc.

These spells were recited to allow the deceased to speak, to have magical powers, to not allow the ab to be left behind, to have protection against fire and dominion over water, to be able to breath the divine air, to not let others speak evil against the deceased, to become one with the imperishable stars, to not allow the Khat to decay and rot away. There are many more spells that were to keep physical parts of the deceased in good condition, and to give the metaphysical parts magical powers and the ability to live on with the gods in the afterlife. For instance, there is a chapter on making the sahu enter the Duat on the day of the funeral! There was even a spell to allow the ba and the khaibi to move freely:

The Osiris the scribe Ani, whose word is truth, saith:- The place which is closed is opened, the place which is shut (or sealed) is sealed. That which lieth down in the closed place is opened by the Ba-soul which is in it. By the Eye of Horus I am delivered. Ornaments are stablished on the brow of Ra. My stride is made long. I lift up my two thighs [in walking]. I have journeyed over a long road. My limbs are in a flourishing condition. I am Horus, the Avenger of his Father, and I bring the Urrt Crown [and set it on] its standard. The road of souls is opened. My twin soul seeth the Great God in the Boat of Ra, on the day of souls. My soul is in the front thereof with the counter of the years. Come, the Eye of Horus hath delivered for me my soul, my ornaments are stablished on the brow of Ra. Light is on the faces of those who are in the members of Osiris. Ye shall not hold captive my soul. Ye shall not keep in durance my shadow. The way is open to my soul and to my shadow. It seeth the Great God in the shrine on the day of counting souls. It repeateth the words of Osiris. Those whose seats are invisible, who fetter the members of Osiris, who fetter Heart-souls and Spirit-souls, who set a seal upon the dead, and who would do evil to me, shall do no evil to me. Haste on the way to me. Thy heart is with thee. My Heart-soul and my Spirit-soul are equipped; they guide thee. I sit down at the head of the great ones who are chiefs of their abodes. The wardens of the members of Osiris shall not hold thee captive, though they keep ward over souls, and set a seal on the shadow which is dead. Heaven shall not shut thee in.
These spells even talk about giving Ani the ability to return to look on his earthly house and to come back against his enemies.

Sets of transformation spells written to allow the deceased to turn into a wide variety of animals - swallows, hawks, serpents, crocodiles, herons and even a phoenix. Other transformations included the ability to turn into a holy lotus, or even into different gods.


 The Book of the Dead of Ancient Egyptian

A chapter of 'Negative Confessions' has Ani speaking to each god who sits in judgement, saying that he has not committed a number of sins - violence, theft, murder, lies, adultery and arrogance to name a few.

Finally, in the Duat, Ani was able to give homage to the gods in the Halls of Ma'ati


They say unto me,
"Who art thou?"
And they say unto me,
"What is thy name?"
[And I reply],
"Sept-kheri-nehait-ammi-beq-f" is my name.
Then they say unto me,
"Advance straightway on the city which is to the North of the Olive Tree. What dost thou see there?"


The doors attempt to block Ani's path through, but the deceased must name each part of the door before it would allow him to pass to stand before Thoth.

[Thoth saith]:
"Advance now, [thy name] shall be announced to him. Thy cakes shall come from the Utchat (Eye of Horus or Ra), thy ale shall come from the Utchat, and the offerings which shall appear to thee at the word upon earth [shall proceed] from the Utchat." This is what Osiris hath decreed for the steward of the overseer of the seal, Nu, whose word is truth."

Finally Ani is allowed to become like a god. Each part of his body becomes like that of a deity - his eyes like the eyes of Hathor, his face like the face of Ra, the cheeks of Isis, the backbone of Set, the belly of Sekhmet, buttocks of the Eye of Horus, the phallus of Osiris, the thighs of Nut and the feet of Ptah. Each part changes until Ani is as a god.

Isis and Nephthys become his protectors, as they protected Osiris. The four Sons of Horus come to act as his guardians, to smite his enemies. Ani says to his new protectors:

I am a perfect soul dwelling in the divine egg of the Abtu Fish. I am the Great Cat which dwelleth in the Seat of Truth, wherein the god Shu riseth.

The Book of the Dead of Ancient Egyptian



Ushabti figures come to life and offer to do any work for Ani, to plough the fields and irrigate the land in the Land of the West, whenever he calls. Another spell provides Ani with meat and milk from the Seven Cows and their Bull, giving him their names, and power over them.

Through the spells in The Book of the Dead, the scribe Ani is able to overcome any obstacle in his path, and to provide himself with food and drink and everything he needs to dwell happily in the Land of the West for eternity. He has gained such power and such magic that he is, himself, like a deity and can live among the gods.

Ani's papyrus was the best preserved with its beautiful images mostly intact, but there were many version of The Book of the Dead. The earliest were in the pyramids - known as the Pyramid Texts - such as those for Unas, Teta and Pepi I. Later on, there were versions written on papyrus and left in the tomb of the deceased. There were huge changes made over time, with only select spells being used or, later in Egyptian history, the more ritual parts of the text disappearing completely. There were also changes made that were influenced by whichever god had the most powerful priests at the time. Eventually manuscripts of these spells were pre-written and sold with spaces left for a name!

 The Book of the Dead of Ancient EgyptianThe Book of the Dead of Ancient Egyptian

The title 'Coming Forth by Day' refers to the belief that the deceased took a whole night (as did Ra with his solar barque) to travel through the realms of the dead. The said spirit would then emerge with the sun, triumphant.

A full version of the Papyrus of Ani has been translated as The Egyptian Book of the Dead by E.A. Wallis Budge. A beautiful set of photographs of the papyrus has been reproduced online by Nox Templi.

The Book of the Dead, the ceremonies, rituals and magic were all done in the hopes that one could reach the Land of the West and a happy afterlife, filled with good things. To live forever with the gods. To, once more, come forth by day as a living man would awaken with the sun.