2012/05/28

Spread of the ancient Egyptian language and affiliation

Ancient Egyptian language belongs to the Afro-Asiatic family spread since ancient times until the present time; in North Africa and the eastern Mediterranean and western Asia. These groups include speaking languages ​​today; Alkostah such as Berber and North African, Arabic and Hebrew in the Middle East.

 

It is clear that the ancient Egyptian language began to take shape before the development of the African and Asian branches to the total current ... Tehma separate, as they contain remain the words of the ancient Egyptian language; especially those prevailing in the era of the modern state.

When the ancient Egyptians used Semitic terms which, for example, Donoha hieroglyphic writing; they were Emezunha Kolvaz foreign, through a special system of spelling.

And I have known of the ancient Egyptian language texts cover a period of about four thousand years; of about 3000 BC., And even the late first millennium AD: When Arabic replaced them, as a place.

The ancient Egyptian language now "dead language", no longer in use: Like the Latin language. Use remains limited, to some extent, in the rituals and rites of the Coptic Orthodox Church.

Inherited from the ancient Egyptian civilization in our contemporary


Talking about tradition requires that we refer briefly to the circumstances that led to the Egyptian people to keen on his land, and to achieve this leadership.Egypt received by a natural safe, and deserts in the east and west, and the Sea in the north, and Jnadl encountered in the course of the River Nile in the south, and give God a steady source of water, the River Nile, and the ground plane has facilitated the link between the Egyptians each other, and between them and their neighbors, and a temperate climate has them well, and spread them in joy and confidence, and a prime location Bakarat linking them to the three main world.All of these factors and other human-made Egyptian man has the distinct potential of making it perform and innovate, to assume the prestigious position Egypt through the ages. 




And succeeded prehistoric man in Egypt in the north and central and south in the first building blocks to put the material and intellectual creativity, and shape of the basics of his life, Vooukd fire, and tap the animal, and knew agriculture. Once the check has stability, and began to look hopefully then go to the cosmic nature, and manifestations suggestive, particularly the cycle of assets between birth and life and death and rebirth. And its ability to observation and extrapolation of things, I understand the Egyptian man that he must pass the same session, live for a temporary period, and die for a temporary period, then sends again for ever and ever. Hence the beginning, the beginning of those two words Alsharitin Gfatta Egyptian civilization momentum and innovation, namely: resurrection and immortality.Thus the old man Valmbar safe that live and create and perform in order to achieve what he wishes him all in a world without a courtyard, a world of immortality.Thus, this human fennel Egyptian sleeves, and work the mind and thought, and began the process of creativity.The beginning was thinking about the forces that move the universe, and who created the universe and its objects. Vatakz himself to the gods and goddesses, but he was not able to determine what these gods, he had chosen symbols of human or animal, or birds or other, which he saw that the characteristics of the gods that thought in her worship.
The line of his first steps towards the art, and began to put controls schools of art in the sculpture, engraving and painting, and doing the same thing for agriculture and handicraft industries, management and the traditions of property, after the united country by a group of leaders, including Narmer and Aha.And culminated in his knowledge of Egyptian writing his creations that have made Egypt of earlier peoples of the earth in this area. Not only did the Egyptian one line is the line Hieroglyph, but culminated in the idea of ​​giving Egypt and other lines are: Alheiratiqi, and Aldemutiqi, and Coptic. Egyptian language and lived the longest in the history of the ancient languages ​​of the world. And still live among us in the names of our country and our cities and our villages, but in our language classical and colloquial.The milestones on the road reached the Egyptian paper from papyrus, to move from the stage of the writing on the stone to write on the material easy to light load, but plays a papyrus a major role in the transfer of creativity across the land of Egypt in ease, say, the Egyptian culture outside the land of Egypt. He continues the march of the Egyptian innovation in architecture, engineering, astronomy, medicine, chemistry, geology, and the superiority of himself in this science through evidence that represent milestones on the road to the ancient Egyptian civilization.And we are all fascinated in front of the head of the seven wonders of the world (the Great Pyramid), in terms of the accuracy of angles and style of construction. The remains of the pyramid towering expressing thought an engineering and architectural excellence, and the doctrine is clear, inspiring all generations, and reminding us grandchildren the greatness of grandparents, and hitting the wall all claims hate the Egyptian civilization, and skeptics in Egypt this miracle, which insult the thought and effort and sweat of the engineer and architect, and the Egyptian worker .The Egyptians never know others in the arts of writing, especially after reaching the paper industry from the papyrus plant. In the field of literature left a lot of masterpieces in the area of ​​governance, advice, and songs that were a source of inspiration in ancient oriental literature, applaud the connection between Akhenaten and Psalm 104 of the Psalms of David are still ahead of us. And the rule of "Amon M Opt" was the source of the Book of Proverbs. Not only that, but he was the lead for the Egyptians in the arts, preferred the arts of theater and music in Greece and elsewhere.A closer look at the creations of ancestors, and the link between them and a lot of aspects in our modern life will make sure we communicate between the past and present through the names that were fired at our country, and the basic features of the character of Egypt, and in the months farming (lunar or Coptic), and in our language of classical Arabic and colloquial, In the names of many of our towns and villages, and in some people like us, and in many of our customs and traditions.
Perhaps the sign of the depth of the roots of the ancient Egyptian human creations, creations that this list is still alive among us, we exercise in our daily lives despite the divergence times.And talk about personal ancient Egyptian requires that we refer briefly to the fundamental factors that played a key role in the formation of this character, the site geographical made Egypt opening up to the ancient world, and the earth flat, which facilitated communication between the people of Egypt and are still cultural and linguistic barriers, and the River Nile, the lifeline that penetrate the country from the far south to far north, which has to man the Egyptian security and stability, and a mild climate throughout the seasons, and belonging to the deep of the land of Egypt, religiosity innate, all of these and other factors made the Egyptian personality, friendly, simple, belong to the land, and self-confident, Matah, open to a large extent, tend to the initiative, and Abida deeply without extremism ..This was the look of the Egyptian people's old himself, he is the people of the sun, noble people, the people of the sky, the people of God, created from the tears unlike other peoples, hold sway in the right direction (from south to north), while the other rivers are rivers flipped. They flat land owners and other owners of the land off.People that took root in which such qualities, it was necessary to form for himself the traditions and principles maintained under constant throughout time, and had been inherited by the grandchildren. If the character contemporary Egyptian had inherited a lot of personality traits of the ancestors, it has inherited from the ancestors of different names, which was launched on our country.Egypt was known throughout the ages range from Titles expressed about the nature of its soil and its geographical situation. These can be divided into three groups Titles (in chronological order for the emergence of these names).The first group are those launched by the ancient Egyptians, either on the whole of Egypt, or part of them - since ancient times, it was dubbed (KMT), ie, black earth, or: fertile land, or a reference to the narrow strip of the Nile Valley, which was grown in since the Egyptian custom of Agriculture. He was also the word: (Dchert), ie, red earth, or: Asahraah land, a reference to the largest area of ​​the land of Egypt, which is a desert land. And he called: (Tawi), ie, the Two Lands, a reference to the key regions in Egypt (the country's south and north): the level and the Delta. And called it also: "Aidboa", ie, "the two banks," a reference to the shores of East and West of the River Nile, where the river separates most of the time between the city districts (which were often in the East), and the city of the dead (which was mostly in the West) , where the dry desert land that will help to save the bodies of the dead. This is in addition to the influential role of the Nile in the life of the Egyptians.Among the names as well: (Tameho), ie, the "land of the north", a reference to Delta, and: (Tahimo), ie, the "land of the South", a reference to the south of the country. Then called the (conspiratorial), ie, "the land of silt," an expression of fertile land which brings him good.Among all these names, more names closer to the heart and mind of the ancient Egyptian name "punched", and then it was the most commonly used to refer to the whole country, and has been using throughout the Egyptian Antiquities, which confirms the link and the affiliation of the Egyptian that part of the land of Egypt, which it grew and flourished the ancient Egyptian civilization.The second group, they are known at a later time of the first group, often in the modern state, and comes on top of names this group name (erosion - ka - Ptah), which is originally the name of the one-month temples of the god Ptah in Memphis: (a dead hostage Currently - Center Badrasheen - Giza), which took place in the modern state, and still remain the advent of so far, which means "opposite the headquarters of (the god) Ptah."It seems that the Egyptian had used this name the most important temple in the most important and oldest capital of Egypt, the most important gods in ancient Egypt, to launch at all of Egypt. It is not uncommon on the part of the launch of all, word (Memphis) is derived from the "from - a group", ie, "consistent and beautiful." Is the name of the pyramid of King Bouap first tribal in Saqqara, ie, that the city has taken its name from the name of the pyramid for this king.Since the ninth century BC, almost, and in one Mlhmte Greek poet "Homer", a "Alawdecea", appeared the name "Aijupts" referring to Egypt. The study found that this name is derived from the name of the ancient Egyptian "erosion - ka - Ptah." It is clear that the Greeks had found it difficult to scale character ha at the beginning and end of the word, and they replaced the gym with a letter Kaf, and this replacement is based on ancient languages ​​and modern. Thus, they became utter the name "Aijupt," and then added to it (as is the case for the names of the flags) at the end of the word the letter "X", preceded by the letter of character movement, to become "Aajews." And not far from the mind that the name "Cheops," uttered the Greek "Ciobs," and that the name "Senusret," Ntqoh "Sizostris" and that the name "Amenhotep" Ntqoh "Omnovis", and so on.The pronunciation of the Greek name "Aajews", derived modern European languages ​​the word function on Egypt, such as Egypt, and the word "Aajews" also made the figure "Aajopti", ie: "Egypt", or "citizen" who lives in Aajews, using "J descent" as is the case in the Arabic language, such as Egypt and an Egyptian, and Escanrih and secondary, and Aswani and Aswan ... Etc..Corresponds to the word "Aajopti" Alkmlh English (Egyptian), and corresponding in other European languages. When the Muslims conquered Egypt found Arabs difficulty in the pronunciation of "Aajopti", a reference to the Egyptian citizen, Vntqoha "Aaqhobti" and "Coptic", which means that the word Copt, as we mentioned means "Egyptian citizen", although it has been used by some to refer to the Christians of Egypt , to distinguish them from Christians in any other place. So Valqubti is Egyptian, whether condemning Christianity or Islam.The third group, led by stand in the name you know by Egypt to this day, a "Egypt," as the name stated in the Koran and the Torah. Common and that the word "Egypt" is an Arabic word meaning "Qatar", gathered on the corner. He believed the owners of this opinion that an Arab named on the basis of its reception in the Koran, and that Muslims were firing at each open them, "Egypt." Whereas it is clear that there is no Islamic country called this last name or keep it, this is the name for Egypt alone. I have mentioned this name in many languages ​​in the countries of the ancient Near East Bhrovh static as it is. Since the fourteenth century BC and the language contained in Akkadian, Assyrian, Babylonian, Phoenician and ancient Arabic, Hebrew, Egyptian names as follows: Egypt, Mushar, Egypt, photographer, Musro, Mizraim .... Etc..And study the derivation of language of this name, it became clear even now that Egypt is not Arabic, it is derived apparently from "Magyar" or "Mushar," and means "Webmasters", or "fortified," an appellation reflects that Egypt is blessed by a natural safe , desert in the east and west, and in the North Sea, and Jnadl in the south. It is "Kenana God in his own land," a "probation" as they are called always. As for the substitution between capital letters gym and Shin and repellent it has existed, the word "Jaba" in the ancient Egyptian language is a "tinge" in Arabic, and the City "Djan" is the "Sun Stone" Now, the word "c" is "recommended", and "wage "she" asked "... etc..Thus we can say that all the names that were fired at our country back in its origins to the ancient Egyptian language. 
 

Hieroglyphic and his meaning

Hieroglyphic word meaning "sacred inscription" (from the Greek ἱερογλύφος), and the term as used by Students of writing systems shows the category of pictorial writing systems fall under the Egyptian hieroglyphic writing and other writing systems, including the Mayan and Chinese writing in its early stages.In common use to indicate the hieroglyphic writing system that was used in ancient Egypt to record the Egyptian language. Where we are the oldest written manuscript of a formal hieroglyphs between 3300 BC. M. And 3200 BC. M. The manuscript images were used to symbolize the initial votes, and had inspired the ancient Egyptian images of those assets are common in the Egyptian environment at the time, from the plant and animal and human and other manufactures.Used hieroglyphic pattern to write a formal event logging on the monuments and religious texts on the walls of temples, tombs and surfaces of the statues and Alolouh stone carved panels of wood color and because of their nature were considered since ancient times in the same system of writing art decorative beautiful, like that of Arabic calligraphy.Line is the father Alheiroglfa first writing systems for each subsequent people built the Semites as some symbols in alphabetical system to record the sounds of their language is the line's initial Sinai derived from it all later alphabet writing systems known in the world almost extinct and the rest of them.After the extinction of knowledge to read the hieroglyphics in later times were busy solving the issue of many symbols, and remember that the same sources and the son of Nun the Egyptian brutality were able to read, even if partially.In the modern era was the discovery of the Rosetta Stone at the hands of an officer in the French campaign, and what followed from the work of Champollion to decipher a significant impact on the progress of Egyptology.Reference to the language of ancient Egypt as the "hieroglyphics" my grassroots and media is a common mistake.



Symbols
Hirogliviataharh Almrørnskhalfeztaliqalkht hieroglyph A thousand,Line hieroglyph ỉ AiaLine Hieroglyphic line Hieroglyph or line Hieroglyph y Aia Massaafalkht hieroglyph ˁ Aaanalkht hieroglyph or line Hieroglyph w and Waoalkht hieroglyph b Babaalkht hieroglyph p hieroglyphic f auction model hieroglyph m Malkht hieroglyph n Nalkht hieroglyph r Ralkht hieroglyph h ​​below this line Hieroglyph ḥ Halkht hieroglyph ḫ Khalkht hieroglyph ẖ Khalkht hieroglyph or line Hieroglyph s Salkt hieroglyph š Halkht hieroglyph ḳ Qagafalkht hieroglyph k Kalkht hieroglyph g c Mbaralkht Hieroglyph Hieroglyph t Talkht ṯ Chalkht hieroglyph hieroglyph ḏ Dalkht d cConsists of a hieroglyphic writing of derived patterns of daily life is writing of a graphic in addition to the presence of alphabet though they are more complex than the alphabet now known in the language deployed in the hieroglyphic Valabagdih divided into three groups.

    
Group A: Symbols are single, or single characters sound like the usual letters today
    
Group B: bilateral sound symbols, a symbol or pattern one but two letters pronounced together
    
Group III: three-Alsot symbols, a pattern or symbol, but one means three.
This is in addition to a range of other marks that do not pronounce a final, but are for purposes such as determining the grammatical plural and the masculine and feminine, and confirmed some of the icons of the meaning of which is known as allotments. The hieroglyphic word derived from the Greek words (Hirose) and (Jlovos) and mean (holy writing)[Edit] Removing the Tlassmha
Return the first attempts decipher the hieroglyphs to the Greeks. It was believed to have the hieroglyphic symbols are symbols of a sham. From the writings of the Greeks on this subject and we received a single manuscript is the "hieroglyphics" to its author Horapulon Hieroglyphica of Horapollon.In Europe during the Middle Ages there was no interest in hieroglyphs, but in 1422 it reached Horapulon manuscript to Venice, sparking interest in them so that some of the artists of the Renaissance, they drew an imaginary building codes to descriptions Horapulon and used them as elements in their drawings of art.Has several attempts to uncover the talismans hieroglyphics before the discovery of the Rosetta Stone in the modern era, including attempts Krcher Jesuit father, who knew that the Coptic is nothing but a dialect or a language descended from ancient Egyptian.The first efforts after the discovery of the Rosetta Stone attempts to Philippe de Sassi 1802 and was a scholar in Arabic has concentrated his efforts on the line Aldemutiqi because he thought that his relationship line patch Arab similarity apparent in the flow, but his research did not produce only one result is that he knew that the names of kings are placed in which is cartridges and they drive Champollion later.After the discovery of the Rosetta Stone during the French campaign on Egypt has the world Chambolion published his discovery on how to decipher the hieroglyphs in 1822. Chambolion was considered the first to discover that the hieroglyphic symbols are the beep codes and unzip the symbols.But that in 2004 revealed Egyptologist Okasha El Daly, the first to discover that the symbols are symbols voice any character is the Arab world, the son of the brutal and that was in his Hawk Almstham to know the symbols of pens, who studied the 89 language and writing system old, including Alheiroglifa and analyzed Many of the symbols [1] developed by the year 861 AD, has achieved Orientalist Austrian Joseph Hummer of that manuscript and translated into English and published in London in 1806 or 16 years before the discovery of Chambolion, and dissemination of news in several Western media [2]. The Syrian researcher Yahya Mir science to achieve the same result and others went on to say that he had briefed Chambolion that this manuscript, but he do not have evidence to confirm or refute this claim.Other lines
Along with the hieroglyphic system exists, write another more fluid and shorthand and easier in handwriting is the line Alheiratiqi who used to write religious documents, medical, administrative, scientific, literary, is its development up to date with the evolution of the line Alheirogafah and not descended from it and not based on it. While derived from the line Aldemutiqi Alheiratiqi in subsequent ages.Post-colonial Egypt and Greek to the mixing of Egyptian and Greek cultures devised a writing system to write the last Coptic language - and the style that is attained by the Egyptian language in that period of history - is the line based on the symbols of the Coptic Greek alphabet
Important NoteUnder occupation Batlamy introduced Egyptian writing Alkadimaoukd was added characters from the Latin language even installed so Btalma pronunciation of words and language remained the language from North Africa, which is the so-called great Coptic or Line Coptic because most of the alphabet Egyptian Old and pronunciation are also ancient Egyptian and would not otherwise have learned the secret of alphabetic language because Hmpelon learning Coptic churches in the know and decrypt the Egyptian languageAnd then disappeared until the language was limited to only the churches and the current Hwaluda but enter upon many of the amendments by the teacher Marzouk in the era of Mohamed Ali Pasha, when the united churches of Egyptian and Greek



Writing in Ancient Egypt

Interested in the ancient Egyptian record everything in writing from the smallest event to the greatest what is going through, from the way of living through the problems and ideas that run it. As without some literary texts, but did not reach us complete the religious texts that were scattered in cemeteries, they completed the thing came to us . Because of this interest in writing a keen interest in the Egyptian and the work on the development to fit the needs and circumstances. The origin of writing would like his peers between the United primitive which started to write in the form of pictures and has remained the Egyptians use images for a long time either other nations have developed written to the symbols.

 And the civilization of Sumer (civilization originated in the south of Iraq) are the ones that guided the Egyptians to the origins of writing symbols, including the featured Writing Hieratic (line religious orders) that the Egyptians were using it for the purposes of religious and first appeared hieratic there was a difference between them and the Sumerian, then there was the development of writing hieratic even lost any resemblance between them and their assets.  The hieroglyphics are writing appeared later, been used for mundane purposes and were based on the images. 

 Then evolved to writing hieratic writing them faster and harder to read called Baldamutiqih (worldly purposes) and has been used until the Christian era. Then leave the Egyptians Demotic We do not know why? Are Khtootadtha because of the complex or because of another? The Egyptian language written in Greek letters and then they added a few letters derived from hieroglyphs to represent sounds not found in Greek and was named captain and remained in use until the seventeenth century and still used in the ritual of the Coptic Church. The hieroglyphic written from right to left or vice versa, or sometimes from the top to the bottom of the hieratic and demotic were Tketban from right to left, always.



Writing Tools:
What began as the first Egyptian writing was written on the stones and then appeared later papyrus (papyrus in Egypt was growing in abundance in the swamps and ponds, but there is now in the north of the Nile from Khartoum)


And the way they used to make papyrus stems from are: -


1. Go a long papyrus stalks into smaller pieces the length of 30 cm and then taken away from her chaff.
 

2. Pulp output cut lengthwise into thin slices stacked side by side.
 

3. Stacked above the bottom layer another layer of slides in the same way, where the perpendicular on it.
 

4. Layers pressed together or even Tgarian Tlthma.
Did not use any of the ancient Egyptian adhesives only juice resulting from the beating or pressing the juice naturally contains starch.


Egyptian also used written materials other than paper, including white limestone chips and broken pottery and wood panels are also used after Ksoeha stucco. Such tools were intended for temporary purposes, such as classroom exercises or drafts or transactions ancient or letters or attendance record of employees. In addition to their use also skin-clad and in the Late Period used in the blogging ivory, clay, bronze and even linen.


And may the panel by stone dimensions of 20-43 cm long and 5-8 cm display and 510 fish, and when one of the edges of the painting there Tjoivan or more to set the colors placed where the red color in the cavity first and the color black in the cavity, the second and any other color in any cavity of another The colors were on the pill form dry, black was the source of carbon and the red color comes from the cave of red and were preparing tablets colors through the mixing of the dye solution Colloidal diluted Vikhther ink when dry If you wanted to melt the ink again enough for dipping the brush in water and passed over surface of the disk (such as water colors). 


 The brush made from bamboo stalks cut in length from 15 to 25 cm and rinse tip tilted Htafa then mashing Age separate the fibers from each other and sometimes reed pens were used, such as badminton, and is done through the incision from the middle age. Instead of grounded after rinsing.

Coptic writing

Coptic writing name from the Egyptian Coptic Christians. It is strange that the word "Copt" originally came from the Greek word "Aigobtios", meaning 'the Egyptian'. Has been shortened to "Gobtios", then move to the Arab "Copt", and finally return to Egypt "Coptos." As the name implies, such as letters Coptic Egyptian language Egyptian hieroglyphics, as happened in 3000 years before. 



 Coptic writing adopted from the Greek alphabet approximately around the second century ce. Christians adopted the Greek alphabet perfectly despite the fact that many of the votes, such as Greek letters that were not present in Egypt. But kept the extraneous messages numeric values. In addition, the Copts added 5 messages taken from the demotic writing, and representing sounds not found in Greek. Final count of 32 and signs of the Egyptian language is masterful at the beginning of the first millenniumUnlike the three Egyptian writings that preceded it and write a Coptic consonants and vowels. This has helped scientists reconstruct history without the Egyptian language as well as provide an idea of ​​how the Egyptian and the words really clear. Coptic writing replace the demotic The letters used in Egypt. It eventually came out about fashion the fourteenth century, when Arabic became the dominant language in Egypt. Coptic writing and language and is limited to the purposes of ritualism in the Coptic Orthodox Church. Here the Coptic alphabet. Blue letters denote the value of the audio message, while the purple words are the names of the letters.

Hieratic

Hieratic type of writing Ancient Egyptian written symbols simplified hieroglyphic symbols of what was original and hieroglyphic writing is not suitable for fast-originated short way of writing for practical purposes is Maaraf Balheiratiqih solution where each symbol in place of the original hieroglyphic.I miss the word "Heratiqi" from the Greek word "Heratikos" "Hieratikos" and means "priestly" and to indicate that the priests were the most commonly used for this line, where a large proportion of the texts hieratic, especially in later times it is the religious texts, written mostly by priests.Line Alheiratiqi is to simplify the line Hieroglyph or in other words, a shortcut though the line Hieroglyph, a line of full marks not commensurate with the nature of the word secular and religious,




 which increased by increasing the movement of life, which required the line quickly, and required materials, writing was not suited with it, but the highway such as papyrus and Alaustraka (Alhqavp ) and in contrast to the line Hieroglyph - line details - which fits more with the large structures where the engraved Blazamal, and the line was written by Alheiratiqi reeds and ink. Hieratic was used in ancient Egypt for nearly 2000 years until the first of the dynastic era of the modern state was suitable for writing on papyrus, documents, reports, inventories and in the courts .... and I also wrote on the stones in the era of kings Alliepien. 

 

The hieratic writing on papyrus stick thin jungle tapered Age dipped in black ink or red at the beginning of the paragraphs in the accounts and punctuation marks Oand write the names of evil creatures and wrote hieratic in lines perpendicular to the Middle Kingdom and then wrote Badzlk gradually in brief horizontal from right to left.And the emergence of writing around 800 Demotic hieratic then lost power replaced by demotic writing a popular line of tourists and Greeks called hieratic writing on the line or the holy men of religion, for use in the sacred texts written in the Roman era in high-lines it lost all the old joy.