Kafre pyramid is surrounded by an inner, huge stone wall perimeter, which is an open courtyard of just ten meters wide, which delimits the four sides of the pyramid proper. This courtyard is paved with limestone slabs of irregular shape.
Due to two different inputs to this structure, some Egyptologists believe that the main pyramid of Chephren was originally to be bigger and stand slightly to the north, and then completed his position. However, modern scientists have considerable expertise on this pyramid, as Lehner, doubt this hypothesis. As the pyramid of Cheops in Egypt and others, the structure of Khafre takes advantage of a rock outcropping to both increase the stability of its core, and to keep the amount of building materials needed for its construction. In fact, the lowest levels of its southwest corner are actually hacked into the bedrock. The bedrock surface northwest had to be cut down some 10 meters by its ancient builders, while the southeast corner has been built using huge chunks of masonry. However, by far the substance of the pyramid core is made of locally quarried limestone blocks of roughly equal height. In the vicinity north of their pyramid, one can still clearly see the traces of how these blocks were extracted. The blocks have not been brought to the care that was given to the soul of the pyramid of Cheops, for the layers do not always run exactly horizontally, and the joints are sometimes very wide. Often, there is no mortar between the blocks. In fact, because the four corner angles are not quite properly aligned to meet pyramid apex, there is a slight snag at the top.
Baseline levels of the envelope were made of pink granite, while the upper layers, which become much smaller upward (about a cubit thick) are a fine Tura limestone. The outer faces of the casing blocks are often offset by a few millimeters rather than flush, which may mean they have faced before their placement. As the capstone and the top were lost at the top of the pyramid, a small portion of the original envelope remains in place, which helps us see how the finishing blocks were laid and connected to the core the pyramid. However, because it is clear that the envelope is remaining erosion, recent research by Italian experts have shown that the remaining edges of the mantle are not completely right. The individual blocks are slightly turned in different directions. An analysis of this feature suggests that this was the result of seismic activity. Small earthquakes are not uncommon in ancient Egypt, because they are also known to occur in modern times.
The older of the two entries in the subterranean depths of Khafre's pyramid is now located in the ground about thirty meters north of the pyramid. Completely carved from bedrock, it is sometimes called the "lower entrance". The portal communicates with a corridor leading down initially before running horizontally. In this horizontal leg of the corridor, a passage on the west wall gives way to a small room carved into the rock and provided with a roof pented, where part of the burial equipment was possibly stored. After the horizontal section of the entrance passage, he finally climbs into a horizontal corridor shared by the "upper entrance".
The second portal, known as "upper inlet", is located in the wall of the north face of the pyramid of about twelve feet above ground level. It communicates with a corridor lined with pink granite that first descends before running horizontally at the base of the pyramid. At the transition point between its descending and horizontal sections, there is a barrier made of pink granite, which in antiquity, grave robbers managed to dig around. The horizontal passage continues south after the barrier, to finally reach the burial chamber, which is on the vertical axis of the pyramid. Given the location and relatively simple construction of the access corridor and the burial chamber, it is likely that the architects of this pyramid sought to avoid complications that builders of the pyramid of Cheops had met with their system technically difficult passages, barriers and chambers.
As with earlier pyramids, the tomb chamber is rectangular, east-west oriented ground plan which puts it at a right angle with the passage system. With the exception of its ceiling, it was excavated completely out of the rock. Located above the base of the pyramid, the gabled ceiling of the burial chamber is constructed from huge blocks of limestone, pented. The original intention was perhaps to cover the walls of the burial chamber of the chamber in pink granite.
There are entries tree in both the north and south walls of the burial chamber which at first seem similar to those of the queen and king of the cambers of the Great Pyramid, but are rather short, horizontal openings that could be used to build a wooden structure inside the tomb.
Near the west wall of the burial chamber, almost directly under the vertical axis of the pyramid and situated in a niche is the black granite sarcophagus of the king who was originally surmounted by a sliding cover. The lid was found in two pieces nearby. Near the sarcophagus, a small tree in the ground probably held royal canopic vessel, which was the first instance of this funerary equipment placed in a pyramid .. No identifiable remains positively to the king's mummy or his other funerary equipment were found in the pyramid.
Violation of the Pyramid
Perhaps as early as the First Intermediate Period, as is the case with other pyramids, thieves had probably already broken into the tomb of Chephren. Registrations by the "overseer of temple construction" indicate that already by the 19th Dynasty, considerable damage had already occurred. In fact, the written sources indicate that, on the orders of Ramesses II, the housing of the pyramid of Chephren was used to construct a temple in Heliopolis. Other sources suggest that much of the pyramid casing was removed between 1356 and 1362 for use in the Mosque of al-Hassan.
Anyway, the Arab historian Ibn Abd as-Salaam records that the pyramid was opened in 774 after Hijra (1372 CE), during the reign of Emir el Grande Jalburgh Khassaki. It is possible that the tunnels on granite around barriers in the entrance passage could have been dug at the time.
The Great Sphinx
Walls on the outside may have extended around the entire complex of Khafre Pyramid, including by the Great Sphinx. Close study by geologist Thmas Aigner of the geological strata of the Sphinx issue that was closely related to the mining and construction of the complex of Khafre.
Therefore, it is an indication that this was part of a pyramid complex of Khafre. However, it is far from certain, so here we have avoided the question for now, the election rather discuss separately the Great Sphinx.