Ancient Egypt was an ancient civilization in eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the River Nile. The civilization began around 3150 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh, and continues to thrive over the next three millennia. The history of ancient Egypt is divided into three kingdoms stabilized: The Old Kingdom (c.2686-2160 BC), The Middle Kingdom (c.2055-1650 BC) and The New Empire (c.1550-1069 BC) separated by two periods unstable intermediates.
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For most parts of its history, Ancient Egypt was unified under one government, so that the military chief concern was to keep the enemies from invading the nation.
The arid plains and deserts surrounding Egypt were inhabited by nomadic tribes who occasionally tried to plunder or settle in the fertile valley of the River Nile. Although the vast expanses of desert formed a barrier that protected the river valley and was almost impossible for massive armies to cross, the Egyptians built fortresses and outposts along the border and is west of the Nile Delta in the eastern desert and Nubia in the south. Most Egyptian cities lacked city walls and other defenses.
The Old and Middle Kingdom Egyptian armies were very simple, they consisted of conscripted peasants and artisans, who would then fight under the flag of the Pharaoh. The early Egyptian army used specific military units, while differentiated military hierarchy came on the scene by the Middle Kingdom.
The major advance in weapons technology and warfare began around 1600 BC when the Egyptians finally defeated the Hyksos. Conquests of foreign territories, as Nubia, need a permanent force to be stationed abroad. The meeting with other powerful kingdoms of the Middle East as Mitanni, the Hittites, and later the Assyrians and Babylonians, the Egyptians made it necessary to conduct campaigns far from home. It was also during this period, the horse and chariot were introduced in Egypt.
Their presence has caused changes in the army's role in Egyptian society and so during the New Kingdom, the Egyptian army has changed its volunteer troops to an organization of professional soldiers. The Egyptian army divided into three main branches: the infantry, tanks, and navy.
Ancient Egypt Infantry
Infantry troops were part written, part voluntary. Foreigners have also been incorporated into the army. Medjay Nubian Egyptian armies came during the interim period unstable first as mercenaries and trained some of the best units in archery. They are famous for their missions against the Hyksos people, who had made themselves lords of Lower Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, under Kamose. In the Realms of Middle and early news, Asian maryannu troops were used, and Sherden, Libyans, and "Na'arn" were used in the Ramesside period, ie, the late New Empire (c.1292-1075 BC).
The ancient Egyptian chariots
Chariots, inspired armies of Western Asia, was officially presented as a division of the army at the end of the Second Intermediate Period (c.1650-1550 BC). New Kingdom, it became the backbone of the Egyptian army. Charioteers were drawn from the upper classes in Egypt. Chariots were generally used as a mobile platform from which to use projectile weapons, and were generally drawn by two horses and two chariots mounted: a driver who was wearing a shield, and a man with a bow or the javelin . Chariots also had the support of infantry.
Ancient Egyptian Navy
Before the New Kingdom, the Egyptian army was essentially aquatic. Navy was an integral part of the Egyptian army, although more often than not, it was little more than a way for ground troops to where they were needed. However, for the interim period later, the Navy has become very sophisticated and complicated naval maneuvers used, for example Kamose the campaign against the Hyksos in the harbor of Avaris (c.1555-1550 BC).
Egyptian squadrons composed of fast "Keftiu / kebentiu" Byblos and Egyptian transports patrolling the eastern Mediterranean, and the higher ranks were composed of the elite middle. The Egyptian deployment of archers and the fact that Egyptian ships could both be sailed and rowed, gave them a decisive advantage, despite the inferiority of the ships themselves, which were sometimes quite considerable carrying up 'Two hundred and fifty soldiers.
Egypt lost its role as a maritime superpower after the late New Kingdom. Phoenicians and Greeks have become key players in the Mediterranean continental powers like the Persians used these sea nations to impose their control over the seas. The last of the Ptolemies, Queen Cleopatra VII joined forces with Marc Anthony Roman, in an attempt to preserve the independence of Egypt. But his fleet was defeated at Actium, which defined the end of Pharaonic Egypt.