2012/08/19

Ancient Egyptian Letters

The ancient Egyptians more than 2,000 characters, which they called hieroglyphics. Hieroglyphics were used as a written language. Each of the symbols stood for a sound, unlike English, hieroglyphics were used phonetically.There are two basic types of hieroglyphs: Ideograms and Phonograms Treaty. Ideograms are images that portray the object they represent. For example, the image may represent a mouth "mouth" of the word. Phonograms are images that represent the sounds of the ancient Egyptian language, as our alphabet represents the sounds of our language. For example, the image of a mouth may also be a "R" sound.

ancient egyptian letters


The mysteries of ancient Egypt were confused and fascinated other cultures for years. Hieroglyphs were used to represent ideas and different thoughts. These symbols have a letter, word or sentence meanings are always of interest to people today. This writing was discovered by the Rosetta Stone. Hieroglyphs using icons that represent the sound of the object or idea associated with the object.


Hieroglyphs are pictures that were used to write the ancient Egyptian language. AS in other languages, Egyptian words consisted of sounds, some of consonants and vowels party. But writing hieroglyphs constantly ignored and omitted vowels. You can see the hieroglyphics on the walls of ancient tombs, pyramids, pottery and ceramics. Scribes also used hieroglyphics on papyrus to record the history of Egypt.


Hieroglyphs were written on papyrus reed, which is a marsh plant or water, high hollow stems straight. The reeds were flattened, dried and glued together to make pages. Egyptian writing was done in pen and ink on thin paper (papyrus). Ink and paint was from power plants they crushed and mixed with water.Egyptian signs were of two types, and phonetic determinative signs which give an indication of the word. Most words are composed of phonetic signs, followed by a determiner. Some had two or three determinative.


Hieroglyphs are written in rows or columns and can be read from left to right or from right to left. You can distinguish the direction in which the text should be read because the human or animal figures always face the beginning of the line. When the names of kings and queens have been written using hieroglyphs, they are always placed within an oval border or
cartouche.

Ancient Egyptian Kingdom

Ancient Egyptian dynasties are grouped into periods of stability called "kingdoms" and periods of fragmentation and chaos called "interim period". The ancient history of Egypt may be divided into three large blocks of time. In each block, all the pharaohs behaved in a certain way. Scientists have named these blocks "The Old Empire", "The Middle" and "The New Empire".

The Old Kingdom was a period that lasted from 2700 - 2200 BC. In this time, the Sphinx and the Great Pyramid of Giza were built. That is why this period is called the pyramid. It lasted about 500 years and is sometimes called "the age of the pyramids." Pyramid Construction would not have been possible without a strong economy and a strong central government.



Royal estates throughout the country and provided centralized resources that were needed to build pyramidal complexes. In the Old Kingdom, the royal power was absolute. Pharaoh (the term originally meant "great house" or "palace"), governed his kingdom by his family and appointed officials. Government was only one aspect of religion and religion dominated Egyptian life.
The Middle Kingdom was a period that lasted from about 2100 BC-1800 BC. The Middle Kingdom includes the 12th and 13th dynasties. Their civilization was a success. The Egyptians had engineering projects, irrigation, construction of ditches and have been during this period.
During the Middle Kingdom (2050-1800 BC), the power of the pharaohs of the Old Kingdom declined as priests and nobles gained more independence and influence. Regional governors of Egypt (nomes) acquired hereditary claim to their offices and their families subsequently acquired large estates.
The new kingdom includes the 18th Dynasty 19th and 20th. The New Kingdom began as a great time to ancient Egypt, but it ended very differently. During the New Kingdom, Ancient Egypt was one of the greatest powers in the world. Egypt conquered many countries throughout Nubia, Egypt provides with many treasures.
Egypt soon developed a great empire, which reached its climax in 1400 BC. The capital of New Kingdom was moved to Thebes. At the end of the 20th Dynasty, Egypt was again divided into many fractions and the New Kingdom came to an end.

Ancient Egyptian Chariots

These are the Hyksos who are credited with the introduction of the chariot in Egypt when they took control of Lower Egypt in the mid-17th century BC, and when they were expelled during the following century Egypt preserved and developed this innovation. Initially, they were Canaanite in style, being exceptionally lightweight and mainly used as mobile platforms archery, with a crew of two people - one driver / shield-bearer and a warrior. During the reign of Thutmose IV of the crew began to use more armor and the cabin became a little heavier.

 Ancient Egyptian Chariots

The chariot in Egypt quickly became the transportation of the elite, whether for war, religion and state affairs, if the donkey has remained humble and dignified an important mode of transport until the introduction the horse. It is this development that gave the real impetus to the cart, which now has become an even bigger weapon, combining high speed, strength, durability and mobility, which could not be matched by the infantry.
An analysis of ancient tanks predict that the Egyptians greatly improved the design of this vehicle. The Egyptian chariot was a metallic coating to the axes, which reduces friction, and it was certainly an improvement. In addition, some wooden parts have been strengthened by covering them with metal handles. The most obvious changes were the adoption of six spokes in the wheels (previously they had used four), and the increasing use of protection for the horses.


Ancient Egyptian Chariots


In Egypt, war chariots were manned by a driver holding a whip and the reins and a fighter, usually armed with a bow or, after spending all his arrows, a spear, below which there has been some them. When hunting, the pharaohs would sometimes go with the driver and enjoy chasing their prey on their own. However, in the war chariot racers would also generally accompany the vehicle in the battle. After the tank was built, considerable work was needed to keep the vehicle in good working order.



Ancient Egyptian Chariots


Therefore, the tank was a political and social importance, because it heralded the appearance of the body tank that consisted of an aristocratic warrior class of the new model of the military elite Asian omnipresent known to the Egyptians as maryannu ( young hero). Representation of the New Kingdom pharaoh triumphant as a charioteer shows that the tank was quickly absorbed into the royal insignia, becomes a powerful symbol of domination. Interestingly, the royal chariot itself was treated as a heroic personality with the gods who oversee each of the parties named.