2012/09/16

Ancient Egyptian Wars

The Egyptians had geographical boundaries which offered some security from foreign invasions and threats. Nevertheless, wars were common in the ancient world and so were in Egypt. The inscriptions, paintings, sources of war, specific war related architectural layouts etc constitute the sources of war. Sekhmet was the goddess of war.

Throughout the Old Kingdom, Egypt mounted raids and expeditions against its neighbours, particularly Nubia and Libya, to acquire resources such as gold, building materials, cattle and, of course, slaves.

Ancient Egyptian Wars



Battle of Megiddo between Egypt and Syria took place in 1479 BC when Tuthmosis ruled Egypt. The Egyptians won the battle, capturing over two hundred chariots and two thousand horses from the defeated Syrians.

The Egyptian battle with Hitties took place in 1288 BC in the city of Kadesh in Syria. The city was under the control of Hitties whose objective was to control Syria. The Egyptians were led by Ramesses II, who commanded an army of 20,000 men divided into four divisions.

Each division was named after a major Egyptian deity: Amun, Ptah, Ra, and Sutekh. Ramsses led several charges into the Hittite ranks, killing the king's brother and several other key leaders. The Egyptians were seemingly victorious in the war though they never took the city. A peace treaty was signed by both sides.

Around 1650 BC, Egypt was invaded by the Hykos who introduced them the chariot. They ruled the northern part of the country for over a century from their capital of Avaris. During the second intermediate period, Egyptian soldiers began to be better equipped protective jackets, lighter shields, compound bows and swords.

Egyptian Words

How did the ancient Egyptian words and their meanings over time:

Ancient Egyptian words and meanings were represented in hieroglyphs. It was a symbolic language represented in the form of images. Written documents hieroglyphics have been found. The Scriptures have been dated to 3200 BC. Egyptian language development is part of the development of Afro-Asiatic language. Language was used until the 5th century AD. But began to decline in use. Ancient Egyptian words and meanings are still present in many Egyptian relics, artifacts, tombs and temple ruins. Ancient Egyptian language is one of the oldest recorded languages ​​of man in the history of the world.


Language development


Before 2600 BC, hieroglyphs were widely used. It was during the Early Dynastic periods. Naqada II pottery vessels inscriptions of hieroglyphic symbols indicating words.


Language during the Old Kingdom


Much improvement has happened during the period of the Old Kingdom between 2600 BC and 2000 BC. Meanwhile, there has been progress in the development of ancient Egyptian words and meanings. Pyramid Texts reveal rows and rows of hieroglyphs. Elite Egyptians recorded their tomb walls with many statements. Temples were also. These different ways to enter words on different surfaces developed language. Graves had short autobiographies of the deceased. Temples were philosophical sayings. Ideograms have tripled as phonograms to pluralize words. It was also an important development in the language of the ancient Egyptians.


Period demotic


The development of the Egyptian demotic language was profound during the 7th century BC and the 5th century AD. This language has been used for about a thousand years. It was a strong language that has developed over the years. During late demotic, Egyptian demotic language was at an advanced stage of development. Once the Macedonian Empire established their base in conquered Egypt, the use of demotic Egyptian declined. However, between 30 BC and 450 AD, a number of literary objects were written. These include journals, memos, autobiographies, observations, creative expressions and so on. When the Romans invaded Egypt, people began to speak less of the Egyptian demotic language.


Some Egyptian words and their meanings


To understand ancient Egyptian words and their meanings, it is important to understand graphical notations. Different symbols represented different aspects of the environment. The following is a compilation of them limited.


Akhet
It is a symbolic representation of the horizon. This symbol was used to indicate the sunrise and sunset.


Amenta


Amenta was used to mean morbidity. It became a symbol to represent burial.
 

Canopic

Internal parts of the body were removed during the mummification process. They were placed in canopic jars. Canopic jars later went on to represent the four son Horus in hieroglyphs.



There are many ancient Egyptian words and meanings represented as symbols that have not yet been fully discovered.


Egyptian Curse

 Ancient Egyptian Curse


Curses, the former held a very important expectation on the psyche of people, rituals and traditions. We hear swearing to be inscribed on tombs and others, but this was rare.
The text of the Fifth Dynasty pyramids is the one that is intact. A stele was found which belonged to Sarenput I, Elephantine, which was part of the kingdom of Senusret I, it was a curse for diverting intruders and protect the things left at his statue.

Egyptian Curse


A curse, to be efficient enough to be placed in a suitable and correct. For example, if a curse is placed to avoid desecraters entering the tomb, and the curse itself is placed on or near the tomb. The purpose is defeated because, for the misfortune to take effect, the tomb must have been undertaken.
According to the beliefs of ancient Egypt, a curse to be read by the offender to take effect. Therefore, all these curses were written in the rooms before the actual tombs in a more accessible location. You can find the curses placed on doors, walls, stelae, statues, and on the coffin doors, even false.
For a person from ancient Egypt, curses were just another part of their tradition, culture, religion and society. In short, it is a concept very much in tune with their daily lives. All societal obligations, family and religious were instilled in his habits, behavior and interactions.
A curse was just another obligation of Maat, law and order, the norms and mores. It was a warning to all those who dared to act against Maat, rebels and criminals. The ancient Egyptians had the inherent belief in the power of these curses.
A wax figure of Apep, enemy of the sun was used. His name is written in green in the figure, wrapped in papyrus and throw it into the fire. Once it began to burn, they kick the figure four times with the left foot. These wax figures were often placed in tombs.
One of the scourges of the most famous is the curse of the pharaoh. It is believed that the curse will take this person who lay the mummy of Pharaoh. Some curses are to burn or on the walls of tombs ante rooms, as in the mastaba of Khentika Ikhekhi at Saqqara.
However, more than a deterrent to tomb robbers and these curses, these were intended to protect and maintain the sanctity of graves by the priests. These curses became gained worldwide fame after the discovery of the tomb by Howard Carter Tutenkhamen.
Curses were also used as a war strategy in writing the names of enemies on steles, tablets, clay pots, numbers of people in the strings, etc. These were then destroyed and the enemy would have made little and powerless.