2013/05/30

Small vase with handles from El Amarna


This small glass vase comes from a house at El Amarna. This type of vessel was made by applying a series of layers of glass paste onto a mud model.

Small vase with handles


Small vase with handles


To obtain the attractive four colour effect, the Egyptians fused the strips of coloured glass into the blue body while the latter was still soft; the vessel was then heated again and rolled to obtain a uniform smooth surface.

The Graeco Roman Museum


The Graeco-Roman Museum was built in 1892 and it had 11 galleries, but over the time, as the museum grew, extra galleries were added. Museum is home to many valuable collections, such as the coin collection that dates back to 3rd century BC.There are exhibited items representing the cult of Serapis as well. They represent the period between, or the transition period between two totally different religions, the Roman and Pharaonic. Mummies, Christian antiquities, Roman and Helenic statues all pertain to this collection.

The Apis Bull that was found near the Pompey Pillar in Alexandria which dates back to the period of the Emperor Hadrian can be seen in this museum.
In the other rooms of the museum visitors can enjoy the exhibitions of pottery, statues, sphinx, Isis, amphoras, textile, metal, sliver, gold, glass, etc.
The Museum Garden is also admirable. It contains numerous statues and artifacts spread out through the garden.
 

The Graeco Roman Museum

The Graeco Roman Museum



The museum was first built in 1892 as a small building located on Horreya Road. In 1895 it was transferred to the present site near Gamal Abdul Nasser Road. It started with eleven galleries, and has been gradually enlarged in later renovation stages. The 25th gallery was inaugurated in 1984. It contains a very big variety of coins from different countries, chronologically arranged, and dating back from 630 BC to the Ottoman period in the 19th century. The collection, which covers the period from the 3rd century BC to the 7th century AD, is a fascinating record of civilization in the process of change as religions merged and society evolved.


In Alexandria, Graeco-Roman and Pharaonic religions mingled in the cult of Serapis; the shift from pagan religions to Christianity can also be seen in the exhibits which include mummies, Hellenistic statues, busts of Roman emperors, Tangara figurines, and early Christian antiquities.





The museum contains hundreds of precious antiques. We will describe the most valuable ones or the best areas in the museum. Honestly, I have been to that museum more than five times and I still would love to go again.

In Room 6 we can find The Apis Bull, found to the west of Pompey's Pillar. The statue was set up in the reign of Hadrian (AD 117-138). This bull represents the most successful imposition of Greek realism upon an Egyptian image. The Serapis Head is sculptured with fine white marble. It was found near the Pompey's Pillar. It was one of the Ptolemies' gods. This god was a blend of Osiris and Apis. A visitor can see fine mosaics, an Alexandrine specialty, including one of a ship sailing, done with colored pebbles set in cement. This is the earliest type of mosaic made.

Room 7: The two headless sphinxes, carved under Amenhemhet IV (12th Dynasty), are spectacular. The two headless black basalt statues of Isis in the niches flanking the doorway show us a clear example of Isis Knot.

Room 8: This room is devoted to mummies and sarcophagi. A visitor can see the difference between the gilded and painted cartonnage of the pharaonic mummies and the ornate diamond bandage of the Ptolemaic ones.

Room 9: This room is mainly dedicated to show pieces of a shrine in the Fayoum dedicated to the Crocodile-god, Pnepheros.

Room 11: Contains some of the most interesting statues, in which Egyptian scenes and techniques are portrayed with Greek influences. We can see image of divine serpents " The Agathadaimon Stelae" and their worshippers. Limestone fragments from a temple at Athribis (Benha) are along the north wall of the room. The god Tutu faces Horus and Athribis with a broken inscription of Greek between them.



Room 12: Contains statues of Graeco-Roman period. A colossal red granite head of Ptolemy IV, was found at Abuqir, wearing the double crown of Egypt. The mosaic of Medusa, once a pavement, originally showed Medusa's entire body. The most spectacular piece is the colossal white marble statue of Marcus Aurelius (121-180 AD), which was discovered under the Sayed Darwish Theater. In the same room, we can see a marble statue of Isis as a goddess of the Nile reclining against a sphinx. Her left hand holds a vessel for the Holy Water and the eight children climbing over her represent the eight cubits the Nile rises for a perfect flood.

Room 14: is filled with portrait heads of famous Romans: Hadrian, Vespasian, and Augustus.



Room 16: Contains some of the finest Hellenistic statuary available. The torso of Aphrodite is magnificent . At the end of the hall are a couple of male torsos, a female, and a seated male, which belonged to a group of statues carved for a pediment for a palace near the eastern harbor.

Room 17: Contains some of the best Sarcophagi found. The most unique one shows Ariadne asleep on the island of Naxos. The god of sleep (Hypnos) stands by her head, and behind him lies the boat that brought her from Crete. Her husband, Dionysisu, stands in front of her with his retinue. The rest of the facade shows a drunken Hercules being helped homeward.

Room 18: The funerary amphora from Chatby. It dates to the end of the fourth century BC. It still has its artificial wreath of green leaves and golden berries around its neck. Another display is a unique collection of clay Tanagra ( an ancient city in the northern part of Greece) figures. This collection spans the 3rd century BC to the 1st century AD. It provides information about women's fashions, hairstyles, hats and dresses in the ancient world.



Room 21: This room contains plenty of pottery and some statues. The statue that stands out in this hall is a Hercules statue with a club in his left hand and his lion-skin coat in his right.

Room 22: This hall is dedicated to colored glassware. Early in Egypt's history, the people learned how to make glass. It is a chance to see the early discovery of the fusion of soda and sand. At the end of the hall is a beautiful bronze head of Hadrian (76-138 AD).

Room 2:Contains many architectural elements from early Christian buildings, the central basket capital is a typical Coptic art.

Room 3: This room has magnificent collection of metal, silver and gold. The silver torso of Aphrodite dates from the 2nd century. There is a varied collection of ancient jewelry with different magnificent colors.

Room 4: Devoted to Coptic textiles from some of the finest weavers in the Christian world.

Room 5: An amazing ancient model of a water cooling system.


Room 1: In this room, we can see the beautiful alabaster Good Shepherd. Its large eyes and flat, regular of the robe is a development from the Coptic style. Part of the hall displays artifacts from the Monastery of St. Menas, west of Alexandria.The Sculpture Garden: The garden of the museum is full of spectacular statues and artifacts.



Hatshepsut´s Temple

 Hatshepsut´s Temple (Deir el-Bahri)

Hatshepsut´t Temple is located on the west bank of the Nile, opposite of Luxor. Hatshepsut was a female pharaoh, the 5th of the 18th dynasty. She was one of the most popular Egyptian rulers who ruled from 1503 to 1482 BC, and she was the first woman to above the title of the pharaoh.
The Temple itself is extraordinary. A large causeway leads to the temple which consists of three courtyards. 

Hatshepsut´s Temple

Hatshepsut´s Temple

Hatshepsut´s Temple

Hatshepsut´s Temple

Hatshepsut´s Temple
 

The Birth Colonnade with reliefs of Hatshepsut´s origins are located on the right side of the terrace. The Punt Colonnade is located on the left side. The reliefs on that colonnade describe the journey of Hatshepsut to the land of Punt.

There are two chapels: the Chapel of Anubis at one end of the Birth Colonnade, and the chapel of Hathor at the end of the Punt Colonnade.  The Upper Terrace was recently opened for public and from there a beautiful view stretches over the Nile Valley. The entire Temple has several more sancturies, a lot of reliefs, statues and murals.

Coptic Museum

This beautiful museum was opened by Marcus Simaika Pasha in 1910. The Museum houses valuable collections of Coptic Christian artifacts. An excellent collection of Nubian art is exhibited in this museum after it was saved from floods in of Lake Nasser.

The artifacts preserved here date from 300 AD to 1000 AD. The entire museum is beautifully decorated and its collections are divided into several groups such as stonework, manuscripts, textiles, etc., and positioned in chronological order. Needles to say, this is the world´s largest collection of Coptic art.

Coptic Museum


Mummification Museum

Mummification Museum of Luxor


Mummification Museum is dedicated to the process of mummification that Egyptians practised not only with humans but also with animals. They believed in the underground world and in the life of the dead. The life after death could be continued only if the body was complete, and that is why the developed techniques of mummification. The museum describes the techniques used in the process and exhibits the tools that were used in order to make a mummy. Visitors can also see mummies of animals, like cats and crocodiles. The museum territory occupies an area of 2035 m2 and it was opened by Hosni Mubarak in 1997.


Mummification Museum

Mummification Museum


Mummification Museum


The artefacts are divided in eleven parts, each of which represent one part of the Egyptian culture related to the mummification process.Mummification Museum is located in Luxor, and is characterized as a museum adjacent to the River Nile, which makes it so charming, and the length of the side overlooking the river about 300 meters.This museum was established in 1995, and opened in May 1997, with an area of ​​2035 square meters, which is the first of its kind in the world.

It consists of the following sections:

First, antiques showroom with an area of ​​300 m, and a scrap of 19 View,The number of artifacts in the hall 66 a piece, chronicling the eras of different ancient Egyptian history, except for two pieces, namely a sample of modern salt natron, which brought from Wadi Natrun western Delta, and the duck stuffed newly-made world, the Egyptian Zaki Iskandar, chemist Alfred Lucas in 1942, as well as to a number of paintings that represent the stages of death and rebirth, the account.

Showroom is divided into two parts, the first is a upward slope from the left side of the hall, which displays the ten paintings by the artist Khalid Amin, and these paintings are taken from Brdety "I" and "is - Navarre," the two British Museum.The second section of the hall at the end of the ramp and its Vatrinat display, which includes a number of artifacts, including: the gods of mummification are statue of Osiris, wooden, and the statues of Isis and Nephthys, and the boat funeral, and the statue of Anubis that lies, in addition to embalming tools sets and means of embalming, coffins.

Hall also has a number of stuffed animals that have had a particular significance to the ancient Egyptian, such as the ram, and the cat, the ibis, the crocodile and the monkey.The most famous mummies in the museum, it is the mummy of Prince Masaherty in his coffin and mummy of the reign of King Khufu, and funds the bowels of the Queen "Hotep" - the mother of King Khufu - The Mummy "alienated" from the era of the Fifth Dynasty at Saqqara.Second, lecture hall and room for 204 people and held by the lectures on cultural topics of the ancient Egyptian civilization and especially mummification.Third: Library Zaki Iskandar give her family has donated to the museum. Fourth, a cafeteria equipped with the latest capabilities. Fifth: The restaurant has a kitchen with the latest styles in modern large hotels.


 

Temple of Seti I

The Temple of Seti I is a mortuary temple which construction begun during his reign but was finished by his son Ramesses the Great. The temple has the shape of an L. The facade has ten columns while, perhaps the most interesting part of the temple is the sanctuary area that is a sort of a triple shrine of the Theban Triad.

Great pylons and sphinx were contructed around the temple of which mostly only remains are left. This is one of the most beautiful and therefore one of the most visited temples.


Temple of Seti I

Temple of Seti I

Temple of Seti I


The Ramesseum


King Ramses II 's building enterprise extends from the temple at Tanis to Abu Simbel in Nubia. The mortuary temple known as the Ramesseum stands on the Theban plain. The Greeks called it the Memnonium or the Tomb of Osymandias, made ever popular by the sonnet of Shelley. The Ramesseum covers an area of 130, 000 square feet. The main entry was from the Eastern Pylon. The glory of the Ramesseum is the Hypostyle Hall with profusely decorated battle scene pillars.

The Ramesseum

The Ramesseum

The Ramesseum


At the southern extreme of the Theban Necropolis is a group of buildings called Medinet Habu, the most important being the mortuary temple of Rameses III. It is the best preserved building of the Ramesside period, copying the exact general plan of the Ramesseum.. The girdle wall of this complex has a group of independent temples like those of Thutmose III, Amenhotep I and Hatshepsut.

These sanctuaries are an eloquent testimony to the reverence of the people towards their gods, the experience of a spiritual presence comforting and encouraging the followers. Terms like "primitive polytheism" and "commercialised priestly actions" are too strong to be used in such instances, without deeper analysis of the psyche of the people, time and space that went into constructing these immortal symbols of Ancient Egypt.


Beautiful jewelry from ancient Egypt

The ancient Egyptians described their native country as "the black land,"  recognizing it as a font of fertile abundance in contrast to the harsh,  unyielding deserts surrounding them. This fertility applied to more than  just agriculture. The inventiveness and creativity of ancient Egypt still  exerts influence and inspires awe today. The ancient Egyptians were  trailblazers in many fields, but particularly in the field of beauty. 

Beautiful jewelry from ancient Egypt

Beautiful jewelry from ancient Egypt

Beautiful jewelry from ancient Egypt



 Pioneers in the arts of adornment, including cosmetics and tattooing, they  did not limit themselves to enhancement of only the body's natural charms. The ancient Egyptians were also brilliant innovators in the  creation of jewelry.  The ancient Egyptians loved ornamentation. Jewelry was designed,  crafted and worn with great care thought and care. In their typical  holistic fashion, fine jewelry was valued not only for beauty but also for  the magical and spiritual protection it provided for its wearer. Did the  concept of purely ornamental adornment exist for the ancients? Did they  make that distinction between amulets and jewelry? Many  anthropologists believe not.

Minerals and metals were identified with specific deities as well as with  specific spiritual and therapeutic values. Thus their words for lapis lazuli and turquoise were synonymous with joy and delight, respectively. Copper and malachite were identified with Hathor, gold connected to the solar  deity.  The Egyptians did not confine themselves to a limited selection of  materials: a very wide variety of minerals were crafted into jewelry  including amethyst, cornelian, jasper, onyx and quartz crystal. Today  these stones are classified as semi-precious versus precious gems like  diamonds, rubies, sapphires and emeralds. How or even whether the  Egyptians classified these gems remains unknown: the distinction  between precious and semi-precious, for us, has largely to do with scarcity and economic value. Connections between availability and economic value did also exist in ancient Egypt but we cannot assume that modern  cultures and ancient Egypt share the same perceptions of what was  precious. For instance, during many periods of Egyptian history, silver was valued more highly than gold, due to its relative scarcity. Just as in  today's world, silver holds less economic value than gold, perhaps many of  what are now considered semi-precious gems may have been perceived as  quite rare and valuable in old Egypt. Many were obtained only with  great effort and cost: lapis lazuli, which held great spiritual significance  for the Egyptians, was not obtained locally but imported largely from  what is now Afghanistan. 

Yet as regards the production of jewelry, the Egyptians seemed to have  also been faced with some purely practical concerns: what to do should a  desired gemstone be unattainable, unavailable or perhaps unaffordable?  In typical ingenuous and innovative fashion, the Egyptians invented the  art of the fabulous fake. The ancient artisans became so adept at crafting  glass bead versions of precious stones that it can be difficult to  distinguish the mimics from authentic emeralds, pearls and tigers-eye. 

This innovation depended upon yet another revolutionary legacy from  ancient Egypt: the development of glass. Debate ranges among modern scholars as to whether glass was initially manufactured in Egypt or in  Mesopotamia (or whether it arose in both nations).



Gold Pectoral of King Amenemope

Gold Pectoral of King Amenemope


Gold Pectoral of King Amenemope



This pectoral, a large piece of jewelry worn on the chest, is decorated with a winged sun disk, which signifies protection for the whole scene.

King Amenemope is depicted sitting on a backless throne. He is wearing the White Crown with two feathers.

In front of him is a seated man with a bull's tail wearing a starched kilt and holding a censer.

The lower part of the pectoral is decorated with the two Tyet knots of Isis flanking the Serekh, or palace facade.


Pectoral in the Shape of a Naos

Pectoral in the Shape of a Naos


Pectoral in the Shape of a Naos

This pectoral, a large piece of jewelry worn on the chest, is in the form of a naos, or inner temple. It is topped by a decorative band with the winged sun disk.

The main scene is of openwork design and shows the winged scarab Khepri. The scarab is below another winged sun god and the cartouche of black stone bearing the Throne Name of King Sheshonq. Beneath the scarab is the Birth Name of the king.

Isis and Nephthys are kneeling on each side. Each goddess has her name engraved on her head. They hold their wings in a gesture of protection to protect the chest and the names of the king. The design of the frame of the scene consists of alternating squares of gold and glass.

The bottom decorative band repeats two symbols: the Knot of Isis and the stability Djed sign. The chain of the pectoral is made of a narrow gold band.

At the back is a counterweight made in the cloisonné technique using applied gold threads and tiny beads to imitate a fringe.

Bastet Ornate ring

Bastet Ornate ring

Bastet Ornate ring


This extremely elegant ornate ring is decorated with the enthroned figure of a cat goddess, who is possibly to be identified as Bastet. 


Bastet Ornate ring Bastet Ornate ring

The wide band of the ring has been decorated on either side of the goddess with a succession of lotus buds and flowers. The seated goddess is accompanied by two groups of three miniature cats.

2013/05/25

Tutankhamun Boomerang Model

Bows and arrows found in the tomb of Tutankhamun.Carter found numerous weapons such as bows, arrows, throwing sticks and boomerangs in the Annex to the grave. Along with these instruments were real models.


This boomerang, found in a box with several models of wood, is one such model. Carved ivory and wearing gold, it would be too delicate for frequent use, and the terminal apartment is atypical for a boomerang. The inscription refers to Tutankhamun as "the God, Lord of the Two Lands," Ra is the Lord of events ", beloved of Ptah, which is south of his wall."
Tutankhamun Boomerang Model



The boomerang was used in ancient Egypt in all periods primarily to hunt game in the marshes. Scenes from owners of graves, about to launch the weapon, were part of the directory of artists from the Old Kingdom (2700-2150 BC). A representation of the king hunting on the left side of the golden altar. There, Tutankhamun is in a skiff of papyrus in the swamps, the boomerang in his right hand and birds caught in the left hand.  


While this scene may reflect an activity which he hopes to include in the above, it is possible that the action of the game hunting may represent the triumph of evil King of the inhabitants of the marsh. The boomerang model would have a magical significance as a ritual weapon with Tutankhamun overcome the obstacles he would face in his journey to the afterlife.

Penannular alabaster ear-ring

Penannular alabaster ear-ring


Penannular alabaster ear-ring



Characteristic New Kingdom form of ear-ring, in Egyptian alabaster, from el-Amarna, the city founded in Middle Egypt as Residence and centre of the sun-cult under Akhenaten.


Tutankhamun Serpent Head Amulet

Serpent Head Amulet of Tutankhamun


Although it is generally known as the serpent head, this type of amulet always includes the front part of the serpent's body as well as the head. It is first found in painted representations on the wooden coffins of the Middle Kingdom, where its name is given in two slightly different spellings, Menqebyt and, less commonly, Menqeryt. It is accompanied by the direction that it is to be worn on the neck. Many of the amulets in the wrappings of mummies were placed in positions prescribed in the Book of the Dead and in the earlier texts from which it was compiled. For example, Chapter 162, which is a spell for restoring warmth to the head of a dead person, is followed by the directions: "To be recited over a figure of a cow made of fine gold and put on the neck of the deceased."

Tutankhamun Serpent Head Amulet

The serpent head is, however, not among the amulets for which particulars of material and location are given in the Book of the Dead, which may explain why the known examples are made of several different stones and even of gold and ivory. But the great majority are made of carnelian. It is the material used for this fine specimen found on Tutankhamun's mummy, suspended on gold wire and lying on the left side of the throat, in accordance with the instruction given on the Middle Kingdom coffins. The suspension wire was threaded through a tubular eyelet at the top of a gold cap that was fitted over the base of the amulet. Gold is also used for the outline of the eye sockets; the eyes themselves are an overlay of quartz with the pupil painted underneath.

Three chapters in the Book of the Dead (Chapters 33-35) are devoted to preserving the deceased owner from suffering injury from snakes and the serpent head has been connected with them, but the name Menqebyt conveys the notion of something cool. The position of the amulet on the throat would have no obvious significance if its purpose were to ward off snakes, whereas ensuring cool refreshment for the throat seems a much more probable function.

Tile with flower decoration

Tile with flower decoration

This tile formed part of the wall decoration of the great palace at El-`Amarna. It shows a vegetative decoration of plant stems, blue flax flowers, and separate inlaid flowers of Anthemis pseudocotula, which has white leaves and yellow flower heads.

Tile with flower decoration

The Rail Museum of Cairo

Trains are a key means of transportation, why not learn a little about while waiting to board a train station in Cairo. Many of us use the train every now and then to move from one place to another. Some people use the subway every day to go to work in Egypt, which is itself a modern train system. Not that you asked, while traveling by train, who invented this machine is complex, with no idea of ​​the train comes from, and what did the first train look like? You can find answers to all these questions and more in the Railway Museum in Cairo.






Located in the far right side of the capital of a railway station in Ramses Square, located in the Railway Museum. There is a vast difference between the atmosphere and ocean in the world inside the museum. Clearly heard the noise and cars and trains, people screaming outside. This is because it is Ramses and one of the most congested areas in Cairo. However, inside the museum, everything seemed calm and completely as if we still live in the old days. Even the staff working there look as if they belong to the last century.Was established Railway Museum in 1933. Was completed in October 26, 1932 and opened in January 15, 1933. Originally to celebrate the international railway conference held in the same year in Cairo. This allowed the members of the Conference of the experience of the first railway museum in the Middle East.The museum contains more than 700 pieces of models, in addition to a set of statistical documents and maps that show the development of means of transport during the past decades. Therefore, the Railway Museum at the Institute of the most important to collect information about transportation in the Middle East.



The History of Railway

James Watt's invention of the steam engine in the seventeenth century was the major motive for scientists to think of inventing a machine to enhance transportation means. William Murdoch was the first to invent a pioneer train wagon in England in 1784. After this attempt, many scientists tried to invent useful trains. One of them was Richard Nerfietik, who tried in 1814 to build the first railway route in history in the south of Wales, but the rails were not strong enough to hold his wagon "Catch Me If You Can” and they broke down. In 1825, George Stephenson was able to use his wagon “locomotion” to transport passengers from Seketon to Lingenton in England. The attempt was so successful that it encouraged the owners of the train to build another route from Liverpool to Manchester. This was truly the first railway ever invented. After its success in England, other countries all over the world started building trains and routes. The United States built its first railway in 1830 and other European countries started building their routes in 1832.




Railways in Egypt

The first railway built in Africa was in Egypt in 1853. The idea of building a railway goes back to 1833 when Mohamed Ali consulted his Scottish chief Engineer, T. Gallway, about building a route between Suez and Ain Shames to become the link between Europe and India. Mohamed Ali started initiating the project as he bought the rails in order to start building the route and the stations. However, France was able to prevent this from happening because the French government wanted to substitute this project with building a canal between the Red and the Mediterranean Seas. Mohamed Ali found himself shattered between the two ideas, so he refused to carry out any of them.

When Mohamed Ali died in 1849, England wrote to his successor, Abass Helmy I, asking him to build a railway in Egypt. He agreed and he signed a contract with Robert Stephenson, on the 12th of June, 1851. The contract asserted that the work should start in September of the same year and that Stephenson should be responsible for all the matters of the project.

The first railway route in Egypt was built in 1854, between Alexandria and Kafer Eassa, and it reached Cairo in 1856. In 1858, the route between Cairo and Suez was built, but it was taken off in the year 1878 after digging the Suez Canal. A new route was built in 1867 to connect Cairo with southern Egypt and Imbaba Bridge was built in 1891 to enable the trains to pass over the Nile near Cairo. And from this point on, the railway has become one of the most important means of transportation in Egypt. You can use the railway to go as far as Matrouh in the west and as far as Aswan in the north. Passengers can depend on the railway service to travel all over Egypt.



The museum mainly consists of five sections

Transportation before steam engines section: This section demonstrates the evolution of transportation from the period of the pharaohs until the invention of steam engines. It has interesting models of the ancient boats that the pharaohs used. This is besides other models and pictures of wooden horse wagons that the pharaohs used in transportation and in the army as well. Ancient gadgets that were vital for the pharaohs are also displayed to show how civilized these people were.

The trains section: The second section is the train section, which is considered the most important in the museum. It shows the development of trains from the first ever built wagon till the modern trains that we use in the present time.

The stations sections: Includes many models of train stations all over Egypt.

The bridges section: It contains models of all railway bridges all over Egypt. Pictures on the walls demonstrate the notion of the bridge and how men thought of it. The story says that there was a monkey who twisted his leg and wasn’t able to pass the river to go and eat from a tree. Each monkey held the legs of the other monkey in his hands and they all together constructed a bridge. The wounded monkey was able to pass the river moving on the bodies of his friends. When men saw this happening, they started to think of building bridges in order to help them pass rivers and seas.

The airplane section: This section gives a brief history of the development of airplanes from Wright till the present day. The section contains information about the airplane motors as well.

Pictures Museum: