2013/04/05

Ancient Egypt Cartouche

 Ancient Egypt Cartouche
  
Ancient Egyptian Cartouche is a special glyph that gave information on birth dates of people with high statuses. They were made of oval shape and formed as a plaque structure. The cartouches in ancient Egypt had special indications to suggest the significance of the person in the kingdom.Traditionally, Pharaohs in ancient Egypt had many names. One Pharaoh would have up to five names. Usually, when a member of a high family or royal family was born, a name was bestowed on that person.

Ancient Egypt Cartouche
Ancient Egypt Cartouche


The other four names would be designated once the Pharaoh started service to the people.As per ancient Egyptian customs, assigning names was designed to transform the Pharaoh from a mere mortal to someone who has divine powers. 

Ancient Egypt Cartouche
Ancient Egypt Cartouche


However, for every Pharaoh, the name given at birth held the most significance. This was the name that would be etched on an ancient Egypt cartouche plaque for a Pharaoh.Cartouches were unknown in ancient Egypt and their concept was established only during the fourth dynasty.



Ancient Egypt Cartouche

Ancient Egyptian Cartouche Template

Ancient Egyptian Cartouche Template

Ancient Egyptian Cartouche Template



 Ancient Egyptian Cartouche Template

Ancient Egyptian Cartouche Template

Ancient Egyptian Cartouche Template



Ancient Egyptian Cartouche Template

King Snerfu was instrumental in bringing about the significance of the ancient Egypt cartouche in everyday life. The word ''cartouche'' was not the original assignment given to the symbolic representation. This word was actually bestowed upon this symbolic representation by the Napoleon brigade.Before the Egyptians invented the cartouche system to record birth dates, the serekh system was used. Archaeologists have been able to uncover quite many of these hieroglyphs. The serekh of Horus was the most important discovery made.



Ancient Egyptian Cartouche Template

Ancient Egyptian Cartouche Template

Ancient Egyptian Cartouche Template


Horus was regarded as God incarnate, and the Egyptians revered this person as all-powerful and all-pervasive.The Egyptians attached a lot of importance to cartouches. They even regarded it as a way of bringing good luck and fortune. Ancient Egyptian manuscripts indicate that the cartouche was placed at certain locations in the house to ward away evil and augur positive energy. Even though superstition ruled the lives of ancient Egyptians, it was aesthetic and culturally vibrant.It was due to the cartouches that archaeologists have been able to find tombs of kings.

Ancient Egyptian Cartouche Template
Ancient Egyptian Cartouche Template

Ancient Egyptian Cartouche Template
Ancient Egyptian Cartouche Template

Ancient Egyptian Cartouche Template
Ancient Egyptian Cartouche Template

Later, mummies were discovered intact in these tombs. All this was because cartouches were beacons of a protective force protecting a precious thing.The discovery of cartouches from ancient Egypt led researchers to discover other things. Since cartouches were believed to protect the area in which they were located, researchers prodded further deep into these sites to eventually discover mummies and majestic tombs. Without ancient Egypt cartouche items, it would have taken longer to find these ruins.

Ancient Egyptian Chariot

Chariots, inspired armies of Western Asia, was officially presented as a division of the army at the end of the Second Intermediate Period (c.1650-1550 BC). New Kingdom, it became the backbone of the Egyptian army.
Ancient Egyptian Chariot
Ancient Egyptian Chariot

Charioteers were drawn from the upper classes in Egypt. Chariots were generally used as a mobile platform from which to use projectile weapons, and were generally drawn by two horses and two chariots mounted: a driver who was wearing a shield, and a man with a bow or the javelin . Chariots also had the support of infantry.

Ancient Egyptian Chariot
Ancient Egyptian Chariot

Ancient Egyptian Chariot
Ancient Egyptian Chariot


Ancient Egyptian Chariot
Ancient Egyptian Chariot

Ancient Egyptian Chariot
Ancient Egyptian Chariot

Ancient Egyptian Chariot
Ancient Egyptian Chariot





Goddess Bastet

Bast  Beloved cat goddess of  the Egyptians, Bastet is goddess of the Delta, with  possible origins in the Libyan Desert. When Bastet  is associated with Isis, she becomes “the Soul of Isis,”  but as a goddess of music and dance, Bastet is linked  with Hathor. Their cult instrument is the Sistrum,  which they carry as one of their attributes. Bastet’s cult city, Per-Bast (modern Bubastis), is  located in the Delta and is mentioned in the Bible as  Pibeseth (Ezekiel 30:17). Bastet’s name is written with  the bas jar and a loaf , and means “She  of the  bas-jar”—a special vessel that holds perfume  associated with her festivals.

Goddess Bastet


During the Old Kingdom, Bastet was called  “Goddess of the North,” and in the Pyramid Texts  of King Unas, she is “nurse and mother of the king.”  When Sekhmet the lion goddess was named “Lady  of the West,” Bastet became her counterpart as  “Lady of the East.” Early depictions of Bastet show  her with the head of a lion and associated with the  lion-headed goddess, Mut. She is said to be the  mother of Maahes, a lion-headed deity, and the wife  of Ptah. Like Sekhmet, Bastet has a dual personality, both  gentle and fierce. Her association with Sekhmet  reveals Bastet’s aggressive and vengeful side.

In one  version of the mythology, Bastet becomes the daugh- ter of the sun god Re, and when she is called upon  to protect her father, Bastet becomes the “fury in the eye of Re.” As a dutiful daughter, she carried out  the orders of Re and was the “means of her father’s  vengeance.” By the end of the New Kingdom (1550–1069  b.c.), Bastet had become a popular household god- dess. Egyptian families welcomed her into their  homes as goddess of the hearth and protector of  pregnant women. Her festivals were famous, and  she was called “goddess of plenty” and “mistress  of pleasure.” And as her popularity grew, her cult  became well-known for its lavish festivals—some of which were called “Procession of Bastet,” “Bastet  Protects the Two Lands,” “Bastet Goes Forth from  Per-Bast” (her city), “Bastet Appears before Re,” and  the “Festival of Hathor and Bastet.” These joyous  occasions involved days of music, dancing, and mer- riment throughout Egypt.

The Greek historian Herodotus provides a lively  description of the devotees of the goddess as they  made their way to the “Festival of Bastet.” When the Egyptians travel to Bubastis, [the  city] they do so in this manner: men and women  sail together, and in each boat there are many  persons of both sexes. Some of the women shake  sacred rattles, [sistrum, pl. sistra] and some of the  men play pipes during the whole journey, while  others sing and clap their hands. If they pass a  town on the way, some of the women shout and  cheer at the local women, while others dance and  create a disturbance. They do this at every town  on the Nile.

When they arrive at Bubastis, they  begin the festival with great sacrifices, and on this  occasion, more wine is consumed than during  any other time of the year. —Herodotus, Histories, Book II, Chapter 60 The worshippers approached the temple singing,  beating drums, and playing tambourines. Some car- ried sistra (sacred rattles) as they danced through the  streets. Herodotus describes Bastet’s lavish temple  as standing on raised ground in the center of the  city, so it was visible from every quarter. A temenos  wall decorated with various animals surrounded the  temple. The inner courtyard was planted with a  grove of trees.So popular was Bastet that the Greeks identified  her with their goddess Artemis. The third-century  Roman poet Ovid refers to the goddess Bastet in his  work Metamorphoses and said the goddess could turn  herself into a cat.


Bastet was most often shown with  the body of a woman and the head of a cat, wearing a  long, narrow, sheath-style dress with wide decorated  bands over the shoulders. The goddess holds her  sistrum in one hand, and in the other she holds an  aegis, a talisman representing a broad collar necklace  with the head of a cat. Sometimes she is shown with  kittens at her feet, a further depiction of her associa- tion with hearth and family. The ancient Egyptian  word for kitten was miw, pronounced “meow”—the  sound a cat makes. It became a term of endearment  for children, who were called miw-sheri, “little cat.”  Pilgrims traveled from all over Egypt to visit  Bastet’s temple and leave offerings to the goddess.  Because the cat was sacred to Bastet, they left bronze  statues, amulets, and mummified cats. Thousands of  cat mummies have been discovered in underground  crypts at the site of Bastet’s temple in Bubastis.

Egyptian God Atum

Called the “undifferentiated one,” meaning  both male and female, Atum was the primeval being  and the creator of the world. Recognized as an early  form of the sun god, Atum was called the “Lord of  Heliopolis,” the ancient city that was the center for  sun worship. Because of his association with the sun  cult, Atum eventually merged with the sun god, Re, to  become Re-Atum.
Egyptian God Atum
Egyptian God Atum 


The creation myth from Heliopolis  tells us that Atum emerged from Nun, the waters of  chaos, onto the primeval mound before heaven and  earth were separated. From his semen Atum created  the first gods on land, Shu (air) and Tefnut (moisture).  They in turn produced Geb (earth) and Nut (sky),  whose children were Osiris and Isis (who were brother  and sister and also husband and wife) and Set and  Nephthys (who were also brother and sister and  husband and wife).

These first nine deities formed the  Heliopolitan Ennead, a family of gods. Atum was not only the creator god but also a  protector and a guardian of the pharaoh, and one of  his titles was “Father of the King of Egypt.” In the  Old Kingdom (2686–2181 b.c.), it was Atum who embraced the dead king in the burial chamber of  the pyramid and lifted him to the heavens, where he  became an Akhenu seku, an “imperishable star.” During the New Kingdom (1550–1295 b.c.), Atum  presided over the coronation of the king, as shown on  the walls of the Temple of Amun at Karnak. In the  Book of Gates, Atum subdues the serpent NekebuKau by digging his fingernails into the snake, and he  confronts the evil serpent Apophis, condemning him  to death.


Atum protects the souls of the deceased  when they travel through the Underworld. Atum appears in human form, usually wearing the  combined white and red crown of Upper and Lower  Egypt. Often he was seated on a throne holding a  staff of authority. The bull, lion, lizard, and ichneu- mon were sacred to Atum.

Egyptian God Aten

A sun god worshipped by the pharaoh  Akhenaten when he changed the religion of Egypt.  The Aten was symbolized by a sun disk with sun- beams streaming down. The word aten means “disk,”  and when written in hieroglyphs, it refers to the sun  as an astronomical body. The origin of the Aten is  uncertain, but it may have come from an early sun  cult in the city of Heliopolis. Queen Hatshepsut’s  standing obelisk at Karnak Temple states that the  gold and silver cap (electrum) on top of the obelisk  would shine on Egypt like the “aten.” Hatshepsut’s  father, Thutmose I, referred to the Aten as a god in  an inscription carved during his Nubian campaigns.

Egyptian God Aten
Egyptian God Aten

The Aten was favored by Akhenaten’s father,  Amenhotep III, who named a division of his army after  the Aten and gave his wife, Queen Tiye, a pleasure  boat called The Aten Gleams to sail on her private lake.  It was not until Akhenaten became king, however, that  the Aten became the supreme god in Egypt. Per-Aten, the first temple dedicated to the Aten,  was built at Karnak next to the temple of Amun,  the great god of Thebes. What the priests of Amun  thought of the new temple is not known, but after  Akhenaten’s reign, the temple was torn down. In the  1930s through the 1950s, archaeologists discovered 35,000 blocks from the dismantled Aten temple. The  decorations on the blocks and the foundation sug- gested to Egyptologists that the Aten temple featured  open courts with pillars, several sanctuaries, and  colossal statues of Akhenaten. One area of the Aten  temple called Gem-Pa-Aten, “finding the Aten,” was  the domain of Queen Nefertiti and her daughters.

Around year five of his reign, Akhenaten moved  the royal court from Thebes to his new city dedi- cated to the Aten in the remote desert. The city  was called Akhet-Aten, “the horizon of the Aten,”  and included two major temples to the Aten: the  Per-Aten (“house of the Aten”) and the Hwt-Aten  (“mansion of the Aten”). Both temples featured  the new open-air design with no enclosed rooms  and with several offering tables placed around the  courtyard. The Per-Aten, which Egyptologists call  the Great Temple, was the larger of the two. Its first  courtyard was called Per-Hay, “the house of rejoic- ing,” where the first light of the sun was greeted each  day.

As the sun rose, the worshippers moved into the  second court, the Gem-Aten (“finding the Aten”)  and made offerings. An inner courtyard was reserved  for the royal family—Akhenaten, Nefertiti, and their  childrento  make special offerings and perform the  necessary rituals each day. Today nothing except the  foundation remains of these temples, for they were  demolished when Akhenaten was no longer king. The essence of the Aten and Akhenaten’s beliefs  are preserved in the hymn to the Aten that was carved on the walls of the nobles’ tombs at Akhet- Aten. It states that the Aten is the only god, that  he manifests himself in the sun’s rays, and that  nighttime is to be feared. Fierce animals roam the  land and danger is present when the Aten’s rays are  not shining down.

Under the beneficent rays of the  sun, however, daily life proceeds, and all work is  accomplished. All life comes through the Aten, and  he protects all forms of life, none too insignificant for  his attention. The peoples of the world are created in  different colors and are given different speech by the  Aten, from whom all the beauty and bounty of nature  come. The Aten cannot be understood by man and  can be truly known only by his son, Akhenaten. The  people cannot worship the Aten directly. Presumably  they worshipped Akhenaten, the son of the Aten.

Boundary stelae (carved stone tablets) erected  when Akhenaten built his city in the desert tell us  about the nature of the Aten.

The great and living Aten . . . ordaining life,  vigorously alive, my Father . . . , my reminder  of Eternity . . . who proclaims himself with his  two hands, whom no craftsman has devised, who  is established in the rising and setting each day  ceaselessly . . . He fills the land with his rays and  makes everyone to live . . .

The phrase “whom no craftsman has devised”  declared the Aten to be intangible; there could be no  statues of him. The Aten was as elusive as the sun’s  rays. This must have been disturbing to the Egyptian  people, who were used to gods with the head of a cat  and the body of a woman, or a man with the head of  a jackal or an ibis. The “hymn to the Aten” says that the Aten is  the only creator god and that he created not only  the Egyptians but also all the peoples of the Earth. 

This, too, would have been a difficult concept for the  Egyptians. If the Aten was the god of all people, then  the Egyptians were no longer superior, and the old  concept of Divine Order or maat, “the way the world  should be,” was clearly askew. Making war on their  neighbors was no longer blessed by the gods, and life  in the next world did not seem possible, for it was not  clear if there was a Netherworld. The teachings of  the Aten were a curious mixture of humanitarianism  and elitism, for the Aten shone only on the royal  family.