2013/05/30

Small vase with handles from El Amarna


This small glass vase comes from a house at El Amarna. This type of vessel was made by applying a series of layers of glass paste onto a mud model.

Small vase with handles


Small vase with handles


To obtain the attractive four colour effect, the Egyptians fused the strips of coloured glass into the blue body while the latter was still soft; the vessel was then heated again and rolled to obtain a uniform smooth surface.

The Graeco Roman Museum


The Graeco-Roman Museum was built in 1892 and it had 11 galleries, but over the time, as the museum grew, extra galleries were added. Museum is home to many valuable collections, such as the coin collection that dates back to 3rd century BC.There are exhibited items representing the cult of Serapis as well. They represent the period between, or the transition period between two totally different religions, the Roman and Pharaonic. Mummies, Christian antiquities, Roman and Helenic statues all pertain to this collection.

The Apis Bull that was found near the Pompey Pillar in Alexandria which dates back to the period of the Emperor Hadrian can be seen in this museum.
In the other rooms of the museum visitors can enjoy the exhibitions of pottery, statues, sphinx, Isis, amphoras, textile, metal, sliver, gold, glass, etc.
The Museum Garden is also admirable. It contains numerous statues and artifacts spread out through the garden.
 

The Graeco Roman Museum

The Graeco Roman Museum



The museum was first built in 1892 as a small building located on Horreya Road. In 1895 it was transferred to the present site near Gamal Abdul Nasser Road. It started with eleven galleries, and has been gradually enlarged in later renovation stages. The 25th gallery was inaugurated in 1984. It contains a very big variety of coins from different countries, chronologically arranged, and dating back from 630 BC to the Ottoman period in the 19th century. The collection, which covers the period from the 3rd century BC to the 7th century AD, is a fascinating record of civilization in the process of change as religions merged and society evolved.


In Alexandria, Graeco-Roman and Pharaonic religions mingled in the cult of Serapis; the shift from pagan religions to Christianity can also be seen in the exhibits which include mummies, Hellenistic statues, busts of Roman emperors, Tangara figurines, and early Christian antiquities.





The museum contains hundreds of precious antiques. We will describe the most valuable ones or the best areas in the museum. Honestly, I have been to that museum more than five times and I still would love to go again.

In Room 6 we can find The Apis Bull, found to the west of Pompey's Pillar. The statue was set up in the reign of Hadrian (AD 117-138). This bull represents the most successful imposition of Greek realism upon an Egyptian image. The Serapis Head is sculptured with fine white marble. It was found near the Pompey's Pillar. It was one of the Ptolemies' gods. This god was a blend of Osiris and Apis. A visitor can see fine mosaics, an Alexandrine specialty, including one of a ship sailing, done with colored pebbles set in cement. This is the earliest type of mosaic made.

Room 7: The two headless sphinxes, carved under Amenhemhet IV (12th Dynasty), are spectacular. The two headless black basalt statues of Isis in the niches flanking the doorway show us a clear example of Isis Knot.

Room 8: This room is devoted to mummies and sarcophagi. A visitor can see the difference between the gilded and painted cartonnage of the pharaonic mummies and the ornate diamond bandage of the Ptolemaic ones.

Room 9: This room is mainly dedicated to show pieces of a shrine in the Fayoum dedicated to the Crocodile-god, Pnepheros.

Room 11: Contains some of the most interesting statues, in which Egyptian scenes and techniques are portrayed with Greek influences. We can see image of divine serpents " The Agathadaimon Stelae" and their worshippers. Limestone fragments from a temple at Athribis (Benha) are along the north wall of the room. The god Tutu faces Horus and Athribis with a broken inscription of Greek between them.



Room 12: Contains statues of Graeco-Roman period. A colossal red granite head of Ptolemy IV, was found at Abuqir, wearing the double crown of Egypt. The mosaic of Medusa, once a pavement, originally showed Medusa's entire body. The most spectacular piece is the colossal white marble statue of Marcus Aurelius (121-180 AD), which was discovered under the Sayed Darwish Theater. In the same room, we can see a marble statue of Isis as a goddess of the Nile reclining against a sphinx. Her left hand holds a vessel for the Holy Water and the eight children climbing over her represent the eight cubits the Nile rises for a perfect flood.

Room 14: is filled with portrait heads of famous Romans: Hadrian, Vespasian, and Augustus.



Room 16: Contains some of the finest Hellenistic statuary available. The torso of Aphrodite is magnificent . At the end of the hall are a couple of male torsos, a female, and a seated male, which belonged to a group of statues carved for a pediment for a palace near the eastern harbor.

Room 17: Contains some of the best Sarcophagi found. The most unique one shows Ariadne asleep on the island of Naxos. The god of sleep (Hypnos) stands by her head, and behind him lies the boat that brought her from Crete. Her husband, Dionysisu, stands in front of her with his retinue. The rest of the facade shows a drunken Hercules being helped homeward.

Room 18: The funerary amphora from Chatby. It dates to the end of the fourth century BC. It still has its artificial wreath of green leaves and golden berries around its neck. Another display is a unique collection of clay Tanagra ( an ancient city in the northern part of Greece) figures. This collection spans the 3rd century BC to the 1st century AD. It provides information about women's fashions, hairstyles, hats and dresses in the ancient world.



Room 21: This room contains plenty of pottery and some statues. The statue that stands out in this hall is a Hercules statue with a club in his left hand and his lion-skin coat in his right.

Room 22: This hall is dedicated to colored glassware. Early in Egypt's history, the people learned how to make glass. It is a chance to see the early discovery of the fusion of soda and sand. At the end of the hall is a beautiful bronze head of Hadrian (76-138 AD).

Room 2:Contains many architectural elements from early Christian buildings, the central basket capital is a typical Coptic art.

Room 3: This room has magnificent collection of metal, silver and gold. The silver torso of Aphrodite dates from the 2nd century. There is a varied collection of ancient jewelry with different magnificent colors.

Room 4: Devoted to Coptic textiles from some of the finest weavers in the Christian world.

Room 5: An amazing ancient model of a water cooling system.


Room 1: In this room, we can see the beautiful alabaster Good Shepherd. Its large eyes and flat, regular of the robe is a development from the Coptic style. Part of the hall displays artifacts from the Monastery of St. Menas, west of Alexandria.The Sculpture Garden: The garden of the museum is full of spectacular statues and artifacts.



Hatshepsut´s Temple

 Hatshepsut´s Temple (Deir el-Bahri)

Hatshepsut´t Temple is located on the west bank of the Nile, opposite of Luxor. Hatshepsut was a female pharaoh, the 5th of the 18th dynasty. She was one of the most popular Egyptian rulers who ruled from 1503 to 1482 BC, and she was the first woman to above the title of the pharaoh.
The Temple itself is extraordinary. A large causeway leads to the temple which consists of three courtyards. 

Hatshepsut´s Temple

Hatshepsut´s Temple

Hatshepsut´s Temple

Hatshepsut´s Temple

Hatshepsut´s Temple
 

The Birth Colonnade with reliefs of Hatshepsut´s origins are located on the right side of the terrace. The Punt Colonnade is located on the left side. The reliefs on that colonnade describe the journey of Hatshepsut to the land of Punt.

There are two chapels: the Chapel of Anubis at one end of the Birth Colonnade, and the chapel of Hathor at the end of the Punt Colonnade.  The Upper Terrace was recently opened for public and from there a beautiful view stretches over the Nile Valley. The entire Temple has several more sancturies, a lot of reliefs, statues and murals.

Coptic Museum

This beautiful museum was opened by Marcus Simaika Pasha in 1910. The Museum houses valuable collections of Coptic Christian artifacts. An excellent collection of Nubian art is exhibited in this museum after it was saved from floods in of Lake Nasser.

The artifacts preserved here date from 300 AD to 1000 AD. The entire museum is beautifully decorated and its collections are divided into several groups such as stonework, manuscripts, textiles, etc., and positioned in chronological order. Needles to say, this is the world´s largest collection of Coptic art.

Coptic Museum


Mummification Museum

Mummification Museum of Luxor


Mummification Museum is dedicated to the process of mummification that Egyptians practised not only with humans but also with animals. They believed in the underground world and in the life of the dead. The life after death could be continued only if the body was complete, and that is why the developed techniques of mummification. The museum describes the techniques used in the process and exhibits the tools that were used in order to make a mummy. Visitors can also see mummies of animals, like cats and crocodiles. The museum territory occupies an area of 2035 m2 and it was opened by Hosni Mubarak in 1997.


Mummification Museum

Mummification Museum


Mummification Museum


The artefacts are divided in eleven parts, each of which represent one part of the Egyptian culture related to the mummification process.Mummification Museum is located in Luxor, and is characterized as a museum adjacent to the River Nile, which makes it so charming, and the length of the side overlooking the river about 300 meters.This museum was established in 1995, and opened in May 1997, with an area of ​​2035 square meters, which is the first of its kind in the world.

It consists of the following sections:

First, antiques showroom with an area of ​​300 m, and a scrap of 19 View,The number of artifacts in the hall 66 a piece, chronicling the eras of different ancient Egyptian history, except for two pieces, namely a sample of modern salt natron, which brought from Wadi Natrun western Delta, and the duck stuffed newly-made world, the Egyptian Zaki Iskandar, chemist Alfred Lucas in 1942, as well as to a number of paintings that represent the stages of death and rebirth, the account.

Showroom is divided into two parts, the first is a upward slope from the left side of the hall, which displays the ten paintings by the artist Khalid Amin, and these paintings are taken from Brdety "I" and "is - Navarre," the two British Museum.The second section of the hall at the end of the ramp and its Vatrinat display, which includes a number of artifacts, including: the gods of mummification are statue of Osiris, wooden, and the statues of Isis and Nephthys, and the boat funeral, and the statue of Anubis that lies, in addition to embalming tools sets and means of embalming, coffins.

Hall also has a number of stuffed animals that have had a particular significance to the ancient Egyptian, such as the ram, and the cat, the ibis, the crocodile and the monkey.The most famous mummies in the museum, it is the mummy of Prince Masaherty in his coffin and mummy of the reign of King Khufu, and funds the bowels of the Queen "Hotep" - the mother of King Khufu - The Mummy "alienated" from the era of the Fifth Dynasty at Saqqara.Second, lecture hall and room for 204 people and held by the lectures on cultural topics of the ancient Egyptian civilization and especially mummification.Third: Library Zaki Iskandar give her family has donated to the museum. Fourth, a cafeteria equipped with the latest capabilities. Fifth: The restaurant has a kitchen with the latest styles in modern large hotels.


 

Temple of Seti I

The Temple of Seti I is a mortuary temple which construction begun during his reign but was finished by his son Ramesses the Great. The temple has the shape of an L. The facade has ten columns while, perhaps the most interesting part of the temple is the sanctuary area that is a sort of a triple shrine of the Theban Triad.

Great pylons and sphinx were contructed around the temple of which mostly only remains are left. This is one of the most beautiful and therefore one of the most visited temples.


Temple of Seti I

Temple of Seti I

Temple of Seti I


The Ramesseum


King Ramses II 's building enterprise extends from the temple at Tanis to Abu Simbel in Nubia. The mortuary temple known as the Ramesseum stands on the Theban plain. The Greeks called it the Memnonium or the Tomb of Osymandias, made ever popular by the sonnet of Shelley. The Ramesseum covers an area of 130, 000 square feet. The main entry was from the Eastern Pylon. The glory of the Ramesseum is the Hypostyle Hall with profusely decorated battle scene pillars.

The Ramesseum

The Ramesseum

The Ramesseum


At the southern extreme of the Theban Necropolis is a group of buildings called Medinet Habu, the most important being the mortuary temple of Rameses III. It is the best preserved building of the Ramesside period, copying the exact general plan of the Ramesseum.. The girdle wall of this complex has a group of independent temples like those of Thutmose III, Amenhotep I and Hatshepsut.

These sanctuaries are an eloquent testimony to the reverence of the people towards their gods, the experience of a spiritual presence comforting and encouraging the followers. Terms like "primitive polytheism" and "commercialised priestly actions" are too strong to be used in such instances, without deeper analysis of the psyche of the people, time and space that went into constructing these immortal symbols of Ancient Egypt.


Beautiful jewelry from ancient Egypt

The ancient Egyptians described their native country as "the black land,"  recognizing it as a font of fertile abundance in contrast to the harsh,  unyielding deserts surrounding them. This fertility applied to more than  just agriculture. The inventiveness and creativity of ancient Egypt still  exerts influence and inspires awe today. The ancient Egyptians were  trailblazers in many fields, but particularly in the field of beauty. 

Beautiful jewelry from ancient Egypt

Beautiful jewelry from ancient Egypt

Beautiful jewelry from ancient Egypt



 Pioneers in the arts of adornment, including cosmetics and tattooing, they  did not limit themselves to enhancement of only the body's natural charms. The ancient Egyptians were also brilliant innovators in the  creation of jewelry.  The ancient Egyptians loved ornamentation. Jewelry was designed,  crafted and worn with great care thought and care. In their typical  holistic fashion, fine jewelry was valued not only for beauty but also for  the magical and spiritual protection it provided for its wearer. Did the  concept of purely ornamental adornment exist for the ancients? Did they  make that distinction between amulets and jewelry? Many  anthropologists believe not.

Minerals and metals were identified with specific deities as well as with  specific spiritual and therapeutic values. Thus their words for lapis lazuli and turquoise were synonymous with joy and delight, respectively. Copper and malachite were identified with Hathor, gold connected to the solar  deity.  The Egyptians did not confine themselves to a limited selection of  materials: a very wide variety of minerals were crafted into jewelry  including amethyst, cornelian, jasper, onyx and quartz crystal. Today  these stones are classified as semi-precious versus precious gems like  diamonds, rubies, sapphires and emeralds. How or even whether the  Egyptians classified these gems remains unknown: the distinction  between precious and semi-precious, for us, has largely to do with scarcity and economic value. Connections between availability and economic value did also exist in ancient Egypt but we cannot assume that modern  cultures and ancient Egypt share the same perceptions of what was  precious. For instance, during many periods of Egyptian history, silver was valued more highly than gold, due to its relative scarcity. Just as in  today's world, silver holds less economic value than gold, perhaps many of  what are now considered semi-precious gems may have been perceived as  quite rare and valuable in old Egypt. Many were obtained only with  great effort and cost: lapis lazuli, which held great spiritual significance  for the Egyptians, was not obtained locally but imported largely from  what is now Afghanistan. 

Yet as regards the production of jewelry, the Egyptians seemed to have  also been faced with some purely practical concerns: what to do should a  desired gemstone be unattainable, unavailable or perhaps unaffordable?  In typical ingenuous and innovative fashion, the Egyptians invented the  art of the fabulous fake. The ancient artisans became so adept at crafting  glass bead versions of precious stones that it can be difficult to  distinguish the mimics from authentic emeralds, pearls and tigers-eye. 

This innovation depended upon yet another revolutionary legacy from  ancient Egypt: the development of glass. Debate ranges among modern scholars as to whether glass was initially manufactured in Egypt or in  Mesopotamia (or whether it arose in both nations).



Gold Pectoral of King Amenemope

Gold Pectoral of King Amenemope


Gold Pectoral of King Amenemope



This pectoral, a large piece of jewelry worn on the chest, is decorated with a winged sun disk, which signifies protection for the whole scene.

King Amenemope is depicted sitting on a backless throne. He is wearing the White Crown with two feathers.

In front of him is a seated man with a bull's tail wearing a starched kilt and holding a censer.

The lower part of the pectoral is decorated with the two Tyet knots of Isis flanking the Serekh, or palace facade.


Pectoral in the Shape of a Naos

Pectoral in the Shape of a Naos


Pectoral in the Shape of a Naos

This pectoral, a large piece of jewelry worn on the chest, is in the form of a naos, or inner temple. It is topped by a decorative band with the winged sun disk.

The main scene is of openwork design and shows the winged scarab Khepri. The scarab is below another winged sun god and the cartouche of black stone bearing the Throne Name of King Sheshonq. Beneath the scarab is the Birth Name of the king.

Isis and Nephthys are kneeling on each side. Each goddess has her name engraved on her head. They hold their wings in a gesture of protection to protect the chest and the names of the king. The design of the frame of the scene consists of alternating squares of gold and glass.

The bottom decorative band repeats two symbols: the Knot of Isis and the stability Djed sign. The chain of the pectoral is made of a narrow gold band.

At the back is a counterweight made in the cloisonné technique using applied gold threads and tiny beads to imitate a fringe.

Bastet Ornate ring

Bastet Ornate ring

Bastet Ornate ring


This extremely elegant ornate ring is decorated with the enthroned figure of a cat goddess, who is possibly to be identified as Bastet. 


Bastet Ornate ring Bastet Ornate ring

The wide band of the ring has been decorated on either side of the goddess with a succession of lotus buds and flowers. The seated goddess is accompanied by two groups of three miniature cats.