2013/12/31

Unique Jewelry Clasp of Tutankhamun

Unique Jewelry Clasp of Tutankhamun


Unique Jewelry Clasp of Tutankhamun


This jewelry clasp is made of gold, silver, and colored glass. 

The design features Tutankhamun's throne name in a cartouche flanked by two uraei, or royal cobras, and topped with crescent and full moons.

These symbols guarantee the king will be protected during the day and at night.




Tutankhamen Model Boats

The Model Boats of Tutankhamen



This collection of boats is called model boats because of its smaller size and they were symbolic boats used by the king on his journeys beyond the grave. Model boats made their first appearance since the Pre-dynastic period (even Pre-history, as they were carved on walls of Pre-historic caves) and existed throughout all the Pharaonic history.

  The Model Boats of Tutankhamen
 

Introduction:

According to the ancient Egyptians, the Nile was considered the main road of transportation as well as the main road of commercial activities.

The prevailing wind in the Nile valley came from the North, so that sails could be used to move boats traveling South while those heading North against the wind relied on oars as well as the water current. (Note that the hieroglyphic word meaning to sail south xsf ends in a determinative of a boat with its sails open while that of the word meaning to sail north xd its sail is closed and represented with oars).

So the boats were very important and considered the fastest means of transportation as they used them to transport people, goods and cargos and these are what we call the daily-life boats.

Model boats were placed in tombs to ensure for the deceased a pleasant journey in the afterlife.

Historical Background:

¨  Boats were used in ancient Egypt since as early as the Predynastic Period (Gerzean Period) as indicated on representations of boats on early vases and funerary equipment also from surviving rock carvings (Pre-historic era).

¨  A great deal of information regarding Egyptian boats has survived principally in the form of representations on the walls of tombs or from funerary models or textual references. There have also been finds of actual boats like the Solar boats of King Khufu or fragments of boat timber.

¨  The earliest and simplest boats were probably the ones made out of papyrus (bundles of reeds tied together, occasionally with pieces of wood added inside to make it stronger and to provide a platform on which to stand or sit). These were used for fishing or hunting in the marshes also for crossing the river and traveling for short distances. Unfortunately, these were short lived as they regularly became water logged and had to be rebuilt.

¨  Wooden boats are also recorded especially with findings of tools used for building them since antiquity: adze for shaping planks, awl for drilling holes and saw for cutting. All were made of copper. Images in tombs and temples show people building boats throughout dynastic times with the same tools. Wooden boats were manufactured taking the form of traditional papyrus boats. Wood was normally brought from Syria, Palestine or Lebanon (Byblos).

¨  Papyrus boats had a symbolic meaning as they were used for royal or sacred purposes: the solar trip of Re (from day to night and vice versa across the heavens) and funerary boats carrying the mummy of the dead king to the necropolis across the river also pilgrimage boats carrying kings and nobles to cult centres like the temple of Osiris at Abydos or Isis at Philae.

¨  In the New Kingdom elaborate models of divine boats or holy barques (sometimes covered with gold sheets) were carried in processions carrying the god where he would ride a full-sized divine ship in ceremonies along the Nile.

 
 The Model Boats of Tutankhamen

 
 Functions of boats:

1-Secular function: which means that boats was used for transporting goods and as a means of transportation for example transporting the obelisks of queen Hatshepsut from Aswan quarries to the Karnak temple.

2-Religious function: they were related with 2 journeys of the deceased and the deities. The first journey is the pilgrimage or voyage to Abydos as the deceased used to make this journey being transported on a funerary bed in a boat taking the shape of papyrus and it was known as "the papyrus boat" or "the cult boat". As for the family of the deceased they used to accompany him in this voyage in ordinary funerary boats. The second journey was the solar journey of god Ra. God Ra used to ride in two boats; one during the day time which was called (manDet m3ndjet) and the second during the night which was called (msktt msktet).

The shape


A boat consists of 2 parts: the frontal part which is known as (the prow) and the rear part which is known as (the stern). The body of the boat itself is known as (the hull). Usually the king used to sit in a shelter inside the boat and the helmsman (the one who steers the boat) was often represented as a dwarf.

The Collection of Tutankhamen

We have at least four show cases showing boats or model boats from the tomb of Tutankhamen. It comprises 35 boats found in the Treasury and the Annex of the tomb (14 were found in the Treasury). Most of these boats were made out of wood such as cedar wood they vary in size from 1 to 2.5m.  The 5 smaller boats were made out of one piece wood while the 5 bigger boats were made of several pieces of wood attached together by means of pegs and tenons.

They are classified into 5 types:  

1.    Transport Boat :

 The Model Boats of Tutankhamen


Among the boats of Tutankhamen's collection were seven boats usually called barges, without sail but with double steering oars. Its principal feature is a double roofed (stepped) central cabin with representation of three windows and a door. Both roof tops have cavetto-cornices decorated with checker-board patterns. 

  The Model Boats of Tutankhamen

At the prow and the stern there are smaller cabins or kiosks, which probably served as shelters for members of the crew and were also decorated.
This type of boats was used for transportation.

2.    Solar Boat:

 The Model Boats of Tutankhamen


This boat is one of several solar boats found in the treasury of the tomb. It had a raised lotus-flower prow and a re-curved stern, one throne placed in the middle, and two steering oars. It is of wood covered with a layer of painted stucco, with some gilded parts like the prow and the stern which were also inscribed with Tutankhamen's names and titles. 

 The Model Boats of Tutankhamen

The throne is also gilded having a representation for the sema tawy sign of unification on both sides. Close to the prow is a painted representation of the eye of Horus. The two oars attached to vertical posts with a cross piece are the steering mechanism. This boat was used by the king to accompany god Re on his daytime journeys across the sky to join him in heavens.

3.    Pilgrimage Boats:
 The Model Boats of Tutankhamen
This type of boats has ropes and mast holding the sail of the boat, a central cabin, two gilded kiosks at the prow and the stern decorated with images of a bull and a sphinx and inscribed with the cartouches of Tutankhamen, and two steering oars. The hull of the boat and the central cabin are bearing some decorations. It is the only type of boats that has a sail and oars. The top part of the oars is decorated with human heads. Unlike many of the other model boats in the tomb, there are no cabins or windscreens for the passenger. This craft was not part of the funerary cortege nor was it like one of the ships which the pharaoh used in life.
As for this type, it was used in the pilgrimage to Abydos. 

  The Model Boats of Tutankhamen

When the boat was sailing to Abydos in the south, they used the sail as they were sailing with the prevailing wind. But when they were sailing from Abydos to the north, they used the oars as they were sailing with the current of the river against the wind. This type of boat was carved from a single piece of wood with mast, oars, cabin, and kiosks made separately and attached with pegs. This boat was usually painted on the walls of the tombs to show the deceased's voyage with his family to Abydos as seen on the walls of the tombs of Beni Hassan in Menya. 


4.    Lunar Boats:

Only two boats of this type were found in the collection of King Tutankhamen. It is a simple boat with in-turned gilded papyrus formed prows and sterns. It is made out of one piece of wood with its hull covered with painted stucco. This type used for night-time lunar travel.

5.     Papyrus Canoe: 

  The Model Boats of Tutankhamen


These canoes are used for hunting hippopotami and fowling in the marshes of the Hereafter. It is a simple boat sometimes called raft having an opened papyrus form prow and stern. It is made out of one piece of wood with its hull covered with painted stucco. This boat resembles the boat upon which the king was holding a harpoon (the piece studied before).




The Statue of God Anubis

The Statue of God Anubis

Introductian Aboudt Anubis:-

-God Anubis was the inventor of mummification, the chief of embalming and the guardian of the necropolis.
- He was considered as a funerary god related to the embalming and the mummification process.
At early times in the different legends they believed that god Anubis was the son of god re.
 
The Statue of God Anubis

-later on, by the appearance of the coffin text they started to believe that he is the son of  goddess "nephtys" from an illegal relationship with god Osiris, so she decided to desert him because of her fear of her husband god seth. So god "Anubis " was raised by goddess Isis, the wife of god Osiris who rewarded him by giving him different abilities such as providing him with ability of understanding the human speech as well as providing him with some knowledge of medicine and providing him with the art of embalming and some other magical power he used to have.
- God Re ordered god Anubis to help goddess Isis and god Horus in reassembling the parts of god Osiris's body so to insure that he will be resurrected in the afterlife. So with the help of god Anubis, god horus managed to collect all the parts of god Osiris and reassemble him again.
-the  priests  used to wear the head of the mask of the jackal to insure that he is doing the same role of god Anubis,we have different scenes representing the priest wearing the mask. The most spectacular scenes were depicted in Komombo, edfu as well as the tomb of senagem where we can see the priest standing by the funerary bed wearing the mask of god Anubis.
- His main cult center is the seventeenth nome which is known in ancient Egyptian time as the jackal nome. Later on it was called by the greeks as the cynopolis  which means the "jackal city''. durind nowadays  it was called "El kais" in "El Menia" governorate.

 The Statue of God Anubis


Why they represent god Anubis in the form of the jackal?

They used to see the jackal prawling  and digging in the sand and devouring the bodies so as to avoid the harm of this animal, they worshiped him as a dog.
-In the early dynastic periods god A nubis is always represented in the form of complete jackal. Later on they started to depict him in the form of human having  the head of the jackal..

Concerning the different roles and duties of god Anubis:-

-At the beginning the ancient Egyptian believed that he has a major role in the process of mummification as he had during the mummification of god Osiris so he will help in the mummification of all the deceased. Moreover, he was related with the process of opening of the mouth.
-He was responsible for leading the deceased and guiding him to the underworld. He used to guide the deceased to the last judgment in the famous scene of last judgment Anubis used to appear next to the balance as to check the beams of the scale with the feather of maat to determine if the person guilty or not.
- He is also considered the considered the counter of the heart as he  used to count the hearts after the last judgment.

-This was found in between the entrence of the treasury room facing the burial chamber.




The description of the statue:

-the statue is made out of wood; it was covered with a layer
of resin and in some parts it was gilded such as the inner parts of the ears, the scarf, the collar around his neck, the eye brows and the extended cosmetic eye lines.
-He is represented in a recumbent position upon a sledge over a chest. this chest was taking the shape of a shrine and decorated from the sides with Isis knot and the Dd sign.
-Also it is decorated with some hieroglyphic inscriptions as well as the cartouches of king Tutankhamen. This chest is connected with 4 poles which indicate that most probably the statue of god Anubis was held in different funerary processions. 

 The Statue of God Anubis
When we first found the statue of god Anubis upon the chest, it was wrapped with a sheet of linen inscribed with the seventh year of the reing of king Akhenaton. Some scholars believed that most  probably this linen was made during the seventh year of the reign of king Akhenaton. Others believed that it was inscribed with (pr Itn) which means the house of Iten. It might be reused from the reign of Akhenaton.
-We found inside this chest several things like 8 pectorals,2 calcite cups containing some remains of resinous substance. They believed that these are from the substances used during the process mummification as they found that they contain resin, sodium chloride, sodium carbonate and natron. These substances were used in mummification so may be these are the substances used in the mummification of king Tutankhamen. They found also some amulets taking the shape of (whm) which is the animal hooves and it means ''the continuity of the movement". We also found 2 statuettes one of them belongs to god (Rahorakhety). The other statuette belong to god Thot.


The upper frame    
Right side
dd mdw in inpw:words spoken by god Anubis
imy wt :he is in the placenta
Left side
dd mdw in inpw:words spoken by god Anubis
hnty sh ntr:he who is in front of the divine shrine

The Middle Rectangle
mry inpw:beloved of Anubis
imy wt :he is in the placenta
nb t3 dsr:lord of the sacred land
ntr nfr:good god
nb hprw re nb h w:lord of the forms of ra,lord of shining.
The Cartouches
twt  nkh imn hk3 iwn rsyt:the living image of amun,The ruler of southern Heliopolis
mry inpw:beloved of Anubis
hnty sh ntr:he who is in front of the divine shrine
                                                                                             

  As we refer to the importance of god Anubis, he had many titles:
1-The lord of the sacred land(nb t3 dsr)
2- He is in the placenta( imy wt)
3-He who is upon his mountin(tpy dw.f).



The Carriage Museum

 The Carriage Museum

 The Carriage Museum


The Carriage Museum, within the Citadel, is housed in the building once used as the British Officers' Mess during the colonial period. It has a collection of eight carriages, including that of the Khedive Ismail used when he opened the Suez Canal in 1869 and a golden state carriage presented to the Khedive by Napoleon III. In fact, most of the carriages date from this period.