2014/11/14

Model Altar in the Form of a Temple Facade

This pylon, or gateway, was discovered at Tell el-Amarna. It is related to the cult of the royal family, which has been noticed in stela found in private houses at Amarna. It was believed that the royal family acted as intermediaries between the gods and the people.

Model Altar in the Form of a Temple Facade


This example is a household altar, or shrine, in the form of the pylon of the temple. The walls of the two wings of the pylon are symmetrically decorated with scenes of the king, Queen Nefertiti, and their eldest daughter. They are worshiping and making offerings to the god.

The king with his swollen belly wears the Blue Crown on his customarily exaggerated head. The queen wears a tall Blue Crown and a long transparent garment. The sun disk, the Aten, radiates his benefits of life and energy to the royal couple.

2014/11/13

Column of King Niuserre

Graceful and well-proportioned columns were carved in different styles and topped with capitals in the shape of a lotus, papyrus, or palm. Some columns were also decorated with the head of the goddess Hathor and are called Hathoric columns.

Column of King Niuserre


This six-sided column has a capital in the form of a closed papyrus. It was one of many that supported the ceiling of the temple of Niuserre at Abusir. The names and titles of the king are engraved on its body.

2014/11/12

Model of a Column

Columns were introduced into temples in order to simulate nature and to identify mankind again with nature. The first tentative attempts at columns are still visible in the Step Pyramid of Saqqara. 

Model of a Column


Columns in Ancient Egypt were in many forms such as bundles of papyrus; papyrus stems and lotus stems; palmiform, or palm-like; or campaniform, or bell-shaped.

The capital of this column is in the form of a lotus flower and its details are carved in relief. The shaft is cylindrical and is set on a rounded base.

2014/11/11

18th Dynasty columns

As indicated by isolated cartouches, these three 18th Dynasty columns were made for Tuthmosis IV. Some twohundred years later, they were usurped by Merenptah and Sethos II, and most of the cartouches name these kings. Much later, the columns were reused in the construction of the Kunsthistorisches Museum, where they now serve as supporting elements in rooms I and V.

18th Dynasty columns



2014/11/10

Fragment from the temple of Montuhotep II at Deir el-Bahari

This fragment of limestone comes from the temple of Montuhotep II at Deir el-Bahari. At the left, one notices the forearm and hand of a person who holds the ankh-sign of life.  The rest of the fragment contains three columns of hieroglyphs in finely painted relief.


Fragment from the temple of Montuhotep II at Deir el-Bahari




Funerary relief From Temple of Ptah

This fragment of relief was found in the temple of Ptah during the excavations of W. F. Petrie at Memphis in 1908. Representing a funeral scene stemming from a tomb of the 5th Dynasty, the block was re-used in the Ramesside Period.


Funerary relief From Temple of Ptah

The relief show bearers of offerings who head towards the funerary chapel of the deceased with pomp.

2014/11/09

Relief belongs to Ramessesnakht

This fragment of limestone relief belongs to Ramessesnakht, an important character who had the functions of scribe of the king,  general and majordomo of the Ramesseum and  commander of the archers.

The piece comes from his tomb which was probably situated in the necropolis of Saqqara. On the relief, the head of Toui, the wife of Ramessesnakht, can still be seen.

Relief belongs to Ramessesnakht


She was known as "singer of Hathor, mistress of the Sycamore of the South". This specific title is one of the testimonies in favour of the Memphite provenance of the piece.

2014/11/08

Ptahkouou Offering scene


This limestone relief, part of the Leopold II collection, represents the deceased Ptahkouou seated before an offering table. His title of "chief of craftsmen" and his name are written in large hieroglyphs above his head. His wife, Khenout, who bears the title of "priestess of Hathor", is found just behind him.

Ptahkouou Offering scene

Ptahkouou Offering scene

Ptahkouou Offering scene


The mother of the deceased, Tchentet, is seated on the other side of the offering table. The relief, which dates from the second half of the Old Kingdom, is particularly distinguished by the numerous traces of blue turquoise colour.


2014/11/07

Nefer Hotep and His Son

This relief is carved on a framed slab. It depicts Nefer-Hotep standing and wearing a leopard skin as a sign of his priestly rank. In front of him stands his son, who is embracing the leg of his father.

The upper frame is inscribed with the names and titles of the deceased, who was a scribe and a priest. An offering formula is also inscribed.

Nefer Hotep and His Son





Harvest scene from the tomb of Seshem-nefer IV

This harvest scene is composed of three wall segments. The bottom register shows the transport of large sacks of barley to the threshing floor. To the right are two labourers who pile up the goods. The middle register has scenes of the harvest of flax and barley, carried out with sickles.

Harvest scene from the tomb of Seshem-nefer IV


To the right is an overseer inspecting the work's progress. The uppermost register continued the agricultural theme, but this has now all but disappeared.


2014/11/06

Relief fragment with butchering scene


This relief bears scenes and inscriptions in raised relief. The front depicts the butchering of animals. It is probably one of three similar scenes of which only the middle one has been preserved intact. One front and both hind legs of the animals have been tied together with rope.

Relief fragment with butchering scene


The other front leg is stretched upwards being severed from the body by the butcher. Two other men are acting as assistants. The original paint on the relief is partly preserved: red-brown, red and blue. The relief may well come from one of the royal funerary temples at Abu Sir.

2014/11/05

Fragment of scene

A limestone fragment of a scene, from either a stela or a wall. The scene depicts the god Amun handing the emblems of the Sed-festival to King Amenmesse. The god wears the distinctive tall, plumed headdress, collar, armlets and bracelets. 

Fragment of scene


Only the hand of the king remains to be seen. The workmanship is very fine and the preservation was described as 'good'.

2014/11/04

Offering list in three pieces

Offering list in three pieces

 Three fragments of an offering list. Hieroglyphs and dividing lines are carved in sunk relief.

Offering list in three pieces

Tomb relief of Kheti


This relief carries a depiction of the funerary offering in a naive kind of sunk relief, still with most of its colours preserved. A standing couple is shown receiving an ox leg from a man standing opposite. In front of the pair is an offering table laden with gifts, and next to the woman some toilet articles are depicted. The father Kheti and his son Montu-hetepu are depicted with short hair, without wigs, as well as collars and short kilts.

The woman is called Henet; she is wearing a dress suspended by two shoulder straps. Upon the offering table are the following items: a wild goose, a closed ceramic jug, a bunch of grapes, a calf's head, an unidentified white object with white stripes, a round cake, a bunch of spring onions, a flat dish with figs, and a gherkin covered by a palm leaf. Beneath the table a closed jar and a plate on a stand are shown.

Tomb relief of Kheti


The toilet articles of the woman consist of a mirror in a slip case and a box with an eye-paint container and a jar of ointment. The entire scene has been overlaid with a grid according to the classical canon of proportions, which divides the standing human figure into eighteen hand widths between the soles of the feet and the brow. The stela dates to the early Middle Kingdom, when this version of the canon had only recently been introduced.

2014/11/03

Wall relief from tomb of Ni-ui-netjer

Important parts of the offering chamber of the mastaba tomb of Ni-ui-netjer are in Vienna. In one of its scenes, the tomb owner is represented at the dinner table. His family is represented on a smaller scale.

The secondary figures, such as the servants who bring the food, have been depicted on an even smaller scale. Among the latter is also a group of dancing girls.

Wall relief from tomb of Ni-ui-netjer

Wall relief from tomb of Ni-ui-netjer



 Seven dancers of normal stature and one dwarf are shown moving to the rhythm of music being made by three other women, not in the photo. Some of the dancers shake sistrums. The troupe was engaged for the diversion of Ni-ui-netjer and his family during a festive meal.

2014/11/02

Goddess Maat wearing a tripartite wig

A fragment of a wall relief showing the upper part of an image of the goddess Maat wearing a tripartite wig, a wide usekh collar, bracelets, and a tunic supported by shoulder-straps. Her head is surmounted by her emblem, a feather, the symbol of truth and justice.


Goddess Maat wearing a tripartite wig

2014/11/01

Royal Scribe Iuty

Fragment of a relief showing the "royal scribe" Iuty sitting before an offering table. He is wearing a ceremonial ankle-length, wide-sleeved costume, bracelets and a necklace.

His feet are shod in ritual sandals and the scented cone has been placed on top of his shaven head. Iuty is sitting on a high-backed animal-legged chair and is resting his feet on a square pedestal. He is holding the sceptre"sekhem" in his right hand while his left hand reaches out to the offering table.

Royal Scribe Iuty


The latter is small and contains a schematic representation of some food such as bread and vegetables. Before him there are four lines of inscription.

2014/10/31

Tomb relief of Dua-er-neheh

On the left of this nearly square relief block is a representation of a striding man dressed in a short kilt and a smooth wig. He is erecting an obelisk as large as himself which forms the left border of the block. In the middle of the block is a stool with animal legs on which lies a so-called Tekenu with a human head and hands emerging from a skin.

Tomb relief of Dua-er-neheh


To the right of this ritual figure stands a lector priest, wearing a short skirt and a smooth wig, with a papyrus roll in his right hand. There are three lines of inscription above the Tekenu.

2014/10/30

Relief depicting Tuthmosis I

 This fragments comes from a wall relief in the mortuary temple of Hatshepsut at Deir el-Bahari. A king is depicted wearing a splendid composite crown, which is probably the so-called feather crown composed of two tall ostrich feathers. Only the serrated outlines of the feathers have been preserved in the relief. The feathers are set on a pair of massive ram's horns with a solar disk and a pair of smaller bull's horns attached to them.

Relief depicting Tuthmosis I


Two upright cobras appear on either side of the feathers; their heads are now missing. Two smaller cobras are appended from the horns. The king has the uraeus on his forehead. His ceremonial beard has a small curve at the tip, and he wears a broad collar without any details.

2014/10/29

Psammetik I

This relief depicts King Psammetik the First wearing the Khepresh crown, while making an offering to the gods Osiris and Horus.  Osiris wears the customary Atef crown, consisting of two feathers, two ram horns, a central cone, and a solar disk.


Psammetik I


 He is holding the Heka scepter of sovereignty and the Nekhekh flail, a symbol of dignity.  The relief contains some hieroglyphic inscriptions giving the name and epithets of Psammetik the First.

2014/10/28

Depiction of a statue of Seshem-nefer IV

The relief represents an offering of incense and meat for the statue of Seshem-nefer. He is depicted as an elderly, plump man, and thus espicially dignified. The position of the arms and the shoulder indicate that the relief depicts a statue rather than the man himself. The single line of inscription also indicates a statue. 


Depiction of a statue of Seshem-nefer IV

Three servants on a smaller scale are depicted facing the statue. Two of the men are standing on a higher baseline; one is opening an incense burner and the other is reciting from a papyrus which is now lost owing to the extensive surface damage. The other servant stands on the lower baseline and is preserved from the waist upwards. 

He presents an ox leg. The outline of his head was later enlarged by the extension of the painted wig beyond the edge of the relief cutting. Each figure wears a short kilt which is tied under the navel.

2014/10/27

Offering table of Seshemu and Nofret

The offering table is topped by a horizontal line of hieroglyphs in sunk relief which states the titles and names of the persons depicted. Below it is a register which does not occupy the full width of the stela, decorated with a scene in relief. It depicts a few items in sunk relief, namely a wash stand in front of the two persons depicted, and a plucked goose  approximately in the centre. 

The remaining surface of the scene is carved in raised relief of a bold quality. A man is seated on the left and a woman on the right with an offering table in between them. Their seats are stools with lion's legs placed on tapering supports. The seats of the stools are at an angle, decorated at the back with stylized flowers. The man is dressed in a short kilt with a belt and a simple collar.

Offering table of Seshemu and Nofret


 He is wearing a bracelet and is extending his arm towards the offering table with his hand above his thigh. In his left hand, which is fisted, he holds the sign for "life". The woman wears the tripartite long wig and a dress with shoulder straps of which the edges have not been clearly indicated. Her right leg has not been indicated either, and it seems to disappear behind her left leg. 

She is touching the stylized offering breads with her extended right hand. Her left hand is resting on her thigh. The left arm is mostly hidden by her body. Her jewellery consists of two bracelets and a simple collar, as well as a double close-fitting necklace around her neck. The offering table with its single leg is covered with stylized bread.

2014/10/26

Offering Bearers

This fragment of a relief shows offering bearers, although the principal figure is now missing.  Seven men and women stand in a row and are shown with their offerings, which include baskets carried on their heads, geese, fish, and jars.

Offering Bearers


In front of them, a seated scribe with his writing tools registers the offerings. Above the scribe, a short title reads "Horus, the Protector of his Father."

2014/10/25

Relief of Queen Ankh-ni-nefer-ka-Re, Amun-Re, and Ptah

This relief shows Queen Ankh-ni-nefer-ka-Re followed by an attendant who shakes a sistrum, or rattle, which was the favored musical instrument of the goddess Hathor.

Amun-Re is seated and the god Ptah, Lord of Memphis, is standing behind him, holding the composite scepter and wearing a skullcap with a solar disk.

Relief of Queen Ankh-ni-nefer-ka-Re, Amun-Re, and Ptah


2014/10/24

The funeral procession on water

This fragment shows two scenes of funerary boats travelling to the right towards a booth under which are jars and a conical loaf. The boat in the upper register is propelled by four oarsmen; in the cabin at the front two persons are seen talking to each other. On top of the catafalque  five mourners are sitting, dressed in large white robes.

The funeral procession on water


 In the lower register a person on the right takes hold of the prow of a boat rowed by four oarsmen. The boat is carrying several standing individuals : one man carrying papyrus bouquets, another holding a large stick, another with a fan, and two men carrying ritual vessels, a funerary figurine, and a shabti box. At the extreme right, beneath the upper booth, a servant is holding two jars on the ground.

2014/10/23

Fowling and Plowing from the Mastaba of Nefermaat

The scene shows activities related to fowling and plowing the fields. The first register, or section, illustrates two men catching three geese and a red bird with a net. This register also shows two other geese feeding on grass.  The second register depicts the fields being plowed by means of ox-drawn plows.

Fowling and Plowing from the Mastaba of Nefermaat




These scenes decorated the facade of the funerary chapel of Nefermaat at Meidum so that he could remember these activities of his life and ensure their recurrence in the netherworld.

2014/10/22

Relief of Tep-em-Ankh

Scenes of daily life on tomb walls recalled the life of the deceased in this world.  This part of the low-relief of Tep-em-Ankh is an example. A nude man is grasped round the legs by a large monkey. He is trying to keep the monkey away with his left arm.

Relief of Tep-em-Ankh


A second man is behind them. He is wearing a short kilt and holding a whip with one hand. In his other hand he leads a female monkey who is carrying a baby. There are still traces of color.

2014/10/21

Relief of Ptolemy the First

This relief is decorated with a colored cornice and divided into two parts. The first, which is partly broken, represents King Ptolemy the First standing and holding the Ankh sign. Bearing the solar disk on his head, he is presenting a collar to the baboon god, Thoth, god of wisdom and writing.

Relief of Ptolemy the First


On the second part, the king, wearing the White Crown, is making offerings to Thoth who is the form of an ibis. Hieroglyphic inscriptions are engraved in different colors.


Fragment of a relief showing Akhenaten

The fragment depicts Akhenaten sitting on a stool. His face and the blue crown have for the most part been destroyed. Akhenaten is wearing a long pleated dress and a broad ornate collar. He is supporting himself on the stool with his left hand, the right is bent upwards. 

Fragment of a relief showing Akhenaten


In that hand he is holding a blue dish. Between the raised arm and his face are some rays of the sun disc ending in hands. In front of the king is another person of whom a small part of the clothing is preserved. The paint is well preserved. The fragment probably comes from a house altar.

2014/10/20

Queen Tiye

This fragment of relief, showing the profile of Queen Tiye, comes from one of the walls of tomb of the 'chief of the royal harem' Userhat (TT47), one of the tombs of the Nobles at Thebes. It was purchased at a public sale in Paris by Jean Capart in 1905.

The portrait of the wife of Amenhotep III was made in a very traditional but highly refined style. Her natural hair, a lock of which appears between her ear and eyebrow, is covered by a tripartite wig. Only the lower part of the traditional crown of queens is preserved.

Queen Tiye



Her diadem is decorated at front with two protective uraei representing Upper Egpyt and Lower Egypt, and at the rear with a falcon in place of the more usual vulture. In her hand Tiye holds a lotus.

The Scribe Ta kneeling In front of Anubis

A bald-headed man is depicted at the right hand side, kneeling on the left knee before the jackal god Anubis, who is on his shrine. The man, who according to the inscription is the scribe Ta, wears a long robe and a long kilt with a pleated apron, and raises his hands in adoration. Anubis wears a kind of collar with ribbons or a narrow sash around the neck.

The Scribe Ta kneeling In front of Anubis


An Eye of Horus is depicted above his back. In front of him are a libation jar in a basin and a bouquet of lotus plants. The text consists of seven vertical columns above the scene and one horizontal line above the scribe.<BR>The representations are finely carved in bas relief.

2014/10/19

Sayempetref and his wife Neshay

On this fragment, two registers of representations in sunk relief with legenda have been preserved. They are carefully executed and very detailed.In the upper register, the deceased Sayempetref and his wife Neshay are seated behind an offering table with loaves of bread. Their son Amenmose stands opposite, libating and burning incense. Sayempetref wears a pleated dress and a wig, and has a short beard. He extends his right hand to the offering table; his left hand holds a sceptre and a handkerchief. His chair has lion's legs and woodwork beneath the seat.

Sayempetref and his wife Neshay


Neshay has placed her right arm around her husband's left arm. She is wearing a long translucent dress and a heavy wig, crowned with a perfume cone and a lotus flower. In her left hand, she holds a handkerchief. Her chair also has lion's legs; a sealed vase with a lotus flower is placed beneath it. The couple's feet rest on mats. Amenmose is dressed in a long kilt and bald-headed. The incense burner is in his left hand, the libation vase in his right.

In the lower register, Sayempetref and Neshay sit on a mat; their four children bring them offerings. This time, Sayempetref is clad in a long pleated kilt; Neshay, embracing her husbands shoulder, wears the same dress as in the upper register. Both sons wear simple short kilts. The daughters wear the same dress as their mother does, the first daughter's wig is slightly different. The first son, again Amenmose, presents a tray with offerings.

Behind him is daughter Insuptah with three papyrus flowers. Son Qedes carries a loaf of bread in his right hand and a papyrus flower in his left. Daughter Qednemehoe has a papyrus flower in her left hand and a kind of bag in her right.

2014/10/18

Fragment of a relief with butcher's scene and fluteplayer


The fragment must have come from a mastaba chapel. Parts of two scenes are preserved on it. On the right hand side, part of the upper body of a man is visible. He is playing a transverse flute and is wearing a skull cap. On the left hand side, a man wearing a short wig and a loin-cloth is shown. He lifts his right leg, causing the loin-cloth to open slightly.

Fragment of a relief with butcher's scene and fluteplayer


A whetstone on a rope is stuck in the belt. The man raises up the foreleg of a cow with both hands. Of another man, holding the hoof, only the hand is visible, as well as a part of the knife which he uses to cut off the foreleg. The scenes are separated by a vertical line. Three or four lines of text are present.














2014/10/17

Relief of King Niuserre's funerary furniture

This low-relief shows King Niuserre's funerary furniture and personal belongings being carried to his tomb by a number of men. His servants are in poses of adoration for his Ka statue, as well as for various deities.

 Relief of King Niuserre's funerary furniture


King Niuserre was one of the most active kings of the Fifth Dynasty. He built some magnificent monuments including the pyramid at Abusir, in which he was buried, and the sun temple at Abu Ghurab.

2014/10/16

Baking and Brewing in Ancient Egypt


This low-relief has two registers, or sections, showing scenes from a brewery. Twelve men bake bread and leave it in the sun to dry. They then soak it in water for some time before squeezing the wet mash through sieves, after which it is collected and poured into jars to ferment.

Baking and Brewing in Ancient Egypt


One man puts stoppers on the jars, while another sits in front of a heap of bread with his hands over his head, waiting for the bread to dry or to be baked. Other men are busy at brewing.

2014/10/15

Birds in the Marshes

This relief was discovered in the funerary temple of King Userkaf. It depicts a flock of birds in papyrus marshes.  The relief was painted and engraved with very fine details. Several kingfishers hover in the air. A green kingfisher is perched on a flower.

 Birds in the Marshes


A hoopoe, a crested bird with black and white wing patterns, is facing a purple gallinule, a fairly large, duck-like waterbird with short wings and a short tail.

Butterflies and an ibis, a large bird of the Nile, with his long curved beak, are portrayed in the relief. We can see also the head of a bittern, a medium-sized, and usually secretive heron.

king Horemheb offering incense

Fragment of a sandstone relief showing the head and shoulders of Horemheb, the king is offering incense in a long-handled censer.

king Horemheb offering incense


Before the king are his nomen and prenomen in cartouches, above is a protective formula and the wings of the goddess Nekhbet. The king wears the blue crown, also named war or 'Khepresh' crown.

2014/10/14

Entertainment Scene from Ancient Egypt

The Ancient Egyptians enjoyed games of chance and strategy in which items have been moved on specially designed panels. A game involving six lions and six sets of balls, played the Predynastic to early Old Kingdom, was called "mehen." Another game, called the dogs and jackals, which seems to be a race between a team of five jackals and dogs around five a palm tree. Little is known about the rules for these games.

Entertainment Scene from Ancient Egypt


Scenes of daily life are depicted in wall decorations in Old Kingdom tombs.  This fine relief from the Saqqara tomb of Nen-Khefeti-Kai belongs to the Fifth Dynasty. It shows musicians and dancers that the deceased wanted to see or remember in the afterlife.

Parts of an offering scene are shown above. A complete row of musicians and singers are depicted playing the harp and flutes, clapping to keep time, and singing. The lower register, or section, portrays female dancers and clappers.

See More :

Ancient Egypt Entertainment

 

2014/10/13

Relief of Paouah and Ouret nefret

This limestone relief depicts a man and his wife receiving offerings from four of their children. Pawah and his wife, the lady of the house Weret-Nefret, are sitting on chairs with lion's feet.

They are wearing the long garments that are typical of the Ramesside Period and their most decorative wigs. In front of them is a table laden with offerings. The children, three daughters and a son, are bearing large lotus flowers and cloths.

Relief of Paouah and Ouret nefret


 The style and the names of the depicted persons are clearly of the Ramesside Period, but we do not know where this relief of rather mediocre quality comes from.

Ancient Egyptian high official Ipy

Ipy was a high official during the Sixth Dynasty. In this panoramic scene, he is depicted sitting in a cushioned sedan chair carried by men in two rows of seven, directed by a foreman.

Ipy is holding a rod with the Mes, or birth sign, at the end. Around Ipy are his sunshade and fan bearers.

Ancient Egyptian high official Ipy


In another scene we see farmers loading their donkey with various crops for transport to the stores. In the two middle registers, or sections, farmers are harvesting corn and flax.

And in the lower register, oxen are being slaughtered. All the scenes are vividly and finely carved with much detail.

2014/10/12

Manufacturing of Gold in Ancient Egypt

Manufacturing of Gold from the Tomb of Nefer Seshem Psammetik


The relief, which was once part of a tomb decoration, shows the tomb owner, Nefer Seshem Psammetik, watching the manufacturing and presentation of gold objects.

He bears the title of "the scribe of the divine book" and he is seen to the left holding his staff and sitting on a stool. Before him, four distinct groups of individuals are shown: first comes the "scribe of the gold," who crouches in front of his scribal materials.

Manufacturing of Gold from the Tomb of Nefer Seshem Psammetik


He holds a pen, palette and papyrus scroll to record the number of gold ornaments received, which have been laid out before the tomb owner on two mats. The second group depicts another man, perhaps the scribe's assistant, receiving a large collar from a woman holding a bracelet.

The next two groups show women wearing collars and bracelets.  The artist excels in portraying the variations in poses, attitudes and even hairstyles.

2014/10/11

Cooking Scenes from Acient Egypt

An interesting scene of cooking once decorated the tomb chapel of a certain Keti located at Herakleopolis, modern Ihnasia.

The relief contains two registers, or sections. The upper one shows the preparation of beverages. To the right, a man is washing a vase, preparing it to receive the drink. On the left side, another man pours a liquid into a tall jar.

Cooking Scenes from Acient Egypt


The second section shows two servants; the first servant, who is busy cooking meat, is talking to the other servant, saying: "Put it on, when it is cooked, take it off."

2014/10/10

Scenes of Punt Expedition from Deir el-Bahari

These scenes show some details of the expedition that Queen Hatshepsut sent along the Red Sea to Punt, now known as Somalia and depicts the travel route of Queen Hatshepsut's expedition to Punt with scenes and texts.

The Punt expedition allowed the Egyptian travelers to exchange their merchandise for the products of Punt, such as incense, myrrh, ivory, ebony, malachite, gold, and electrum. 

Scenes of Punt Expedition from Deir el-Bahari

Scenes of Punt Expedition from Deir el-Bahari


This relief shows some people of Punt carrying sticks. On the other fragment, is depicted the donkey that bore Ati, the wife of the chief of Punt, who was represented in an ironic way on another fragment of the same wall.

The scene is accompanied by text that reveals the delicate sense of humor of the ancient Egyptians. It says, "The poor donkey, which bears his wife." That was because of her large body and her heavy weight.



Exchanging Gifts in the Land of Punt


This block shows a man holding a stick to guide a donkey that carries some gifts to be exchanged between the Egyptians and the people of Punt.

The Egyptian gifts were objects like daggers, designed to induce the Ruler to exchange them for gold, ivory, leopard skins, animals, and frankincense trees.

Exchanging Gifts in the Land of Punt

Importing these trees was the real object of the expedition. The object was to plant them at the sides of the facade of the temple at Deir el-Bahari.

Incense was very important in Egyptian cult life. It confirmed the relation between the gods and believers. It was also burned to ward off evil spirits.



Exchanging Gifts in the Land of Punt


The block shows Parehu, the Ruler of Punt, holding a rod. In front of him the Egyptians, guided by Pa-Nehsi, present jewelry and an exquisite golden dagger. Standing just behind Parehu is his wife, Ati, who is shown as a fat, deformed person.

It is likely that the Egyptian artist showed her like this because she suffered from the disease known as elephantiasis, which is characterized by the enlargement of a part of the body. It is also likely that the artist exaggerated a little to make a sort of caricature, or comic imitation.

The artist recorded all the details of African life. He even depicted small details such as the African collars worn by the Ruler of Punt and his wife and the strokes drawn on their faces.








Architrave fragment of Kay-nefer

This architrave fragment comes from the mastaba of Kay-nefer in the western cemetery of Giza. In addition to the cult chamber in the centre of the mastaba, other cult chambers were added outside the eastern wall. 


Architrave fragment of Kay-nefer

This piece may well have been placed above the entrance to such a chamber. On the left, the owner of the tomb Kay-nefer is shown, wearing a broad kilt and a striated wig. In his left hand he is holding a long staff. 

Of the three horizontal lines of inscription, only the ends are preserved, but it was probably a prayer to Anubis for a good burial in the necropolis.