2014/05/31

Tutankhamun Necklace with Lunar Pectoral

 Necklace with Lunar Pectoral of Tutankhamun


Pectorals attached to necklaces and decorated with figures of deities and the symbols that were associated with them formed a high proportion of the jewelry found in Tutankhamun's tomb. In this example the chains of the necklace consist of four rows of spherical and barrel-shaped beads made of gold, lapis lazuli, carnelian, feldspar and resin. At the top of the necklace is a gold cloisonne counterpoise inlaid with a lotus flower and buds, two poppies, and two rosettes. 

Ten bead tassels, each ending in a faience corolla, are attached to a gold bar supported by the lotus flower. The clasp consists of a tenon that projects from the left-hand corner of the counterpoise and slides into a mortise in the upper terminal bar of the necklace. The lower terminals, which are joined to the pectoral, bear the king's personal name and his throne name, flanked by uraei with outstretched wings embracing the shen sign.

Tutankhamun Necklace with Lunar Pectoral

The pectoral symbolizes the nocturnal journey of the moon across the sky. At the base is the long, narrow, hieroglyphic sign for the sky, appropriately inlaid with blue lapis lazuli. Beneath it are fringelike inlays of feldspar and lapis lazuli representing drops of moisture; they are added to the sky sign in the hieroglyphic writing of words meaning dew and rain. Lotus flowers and buds grow from the celestial waters; the golden bark seems to float above them. This arrangement illustrates the convention regularly adopted by Egyptian artists to show two objects on the same plane when one object was behind another: the farther object was placed above the nearer.

 In this case the bark must be understood to be floating on top of the sky sign behind the flowers. So that it should be evident that the bark is conveying the moon and not the sun, the crescent is added to the moon's disk, again in accordance with convention. Furthermore, the moon and crescent are made of electrum, a mixture of silver and gold and therefore lighter in color than pure gold or red carnelian, which were the materials normally used in representations of the sun. The shape of bark itself with its incurved prow and stern is developed from the ancient Nile craft made of stems of papyrus lashed together.

The design is the same as that of both the sun's bark and the bark used to convey the dead on funerary voyages to the sanctuary of Osiris at Abydos. A thin cord, of which traces can be seen at the base of the moon's disk, was used to attach the pectoral to the wearer's clothing in order to keep it in position when worn. Its presence suggests that the necklace, like many of the other objects found in the cartouche-shaped box, was a personal possession worn by the king in his lifetime.

2014/05/30

Tutankhamun Gold pendant with Various Deities

 Gold pendant with Various Deities of Tutankhamun

Color was always used with care in Egyptian composition, and it is generally significant. Our understanding of ancient usage, however, is complicated by the fact that the Egyptians appear not to have classified colors in the same way as we do today.

Tutankhamun Gold pendant with Various Deities

Light blue, for example, seems to have been associated with green or white rather than seen as a shade of dark blue, which the Egyptians evidently related to black. This difference in perception may explain the use of light blue for the flesh of the normally green-skinned god Ptah in this pectoral ornament from the Treasury - and similarly the use of black for both the blue crown of the king and the god's close-fitting cap.

Tutankhamun Gold Falcon Collar

Chased Gold Falcon Collar with Small Counterpoise of Tutankhamun

An Egyptian mummy was an embalmed body, wrapped according to a prescribed pattern in linen bandages. Protective charms (amulets) were placed between the layers of bandages, so that they lay over the part of the body which they were intended to protect or to assist through the power of magic. By multiplying the layers of bandages, more and more amulets could be placed directly over any physical member.

Tutankhamun Gold Falcon Collar

Personal possessions, and particularly jewelry, might be included with the amulets. The bandages of Tutankhamun's mummy enveloped 143 objects - chiefly amulets, such as the chased gold falcon collar with small counterpoise shown above, but also many personal possessions, the fine dagger and sheath lying above the abdomen of the mummy being an outstanding example.

Ornamental Bracelets of Tutankhamun


Very few of the major pieces of jewelry found in Tutankhamun's tomb were intended solely for purposes of adornment. Decorative elements in design are not infrequent, but they are usually subsidiary to the central motif, which was thought to have magical, and especially protective, properties of some kind.

 In this respect they conform with Egyptian jewelry in general: artists and craftsmen devoted much of their skill and ingenuity to devising images drawn from a fairly limited range of myths, often placing them in an attractive setting.

 Two Ornamental Bracelets of Tutankhamun

The two bracelets illustrated here belong to the ornamental class; nothing in their decoration has any recognizable amuletic or magical significance.  The one illustrated on the left is a rigid bracelet, from the left forearm of Tutankhamun's mummy; the one on the right is a flexible bracelet from his right wrist.

 Both bracelets have as their bezels semiprecious stones mounted on plates of gold or electrum; the jewels are probably turquoise in the rigid bracelet and lapis lazuli in the flexible.
 In each case the jewel is set in a border of applied granular-work and small bosses, bands of braided rope, and continuous spirals.

The wrist strap of the rigid bracelet, which is made of four gold tubes bound together, represents the stems of the papyrus flowers and buds at the hinge end of the strap and lilies interspersed with buds at the clasp. These floral terminals serve the same purpose as the corresponding elements on the udjat eye bracelet.

In the flexible bracelet the wrist strap consists of eight strands of gold disk and barrel-shaped beads divided by a central strand of blue glass and carnelian beads. The spacer bar at the free end of the strap has a tenon that slides into a groove on the fixed bar attached to the plate on which the jewel is mounted.

2014/05/29

Tutankhamun pictures

2014/05/28

Stela of Khons-hotep


At the top, a winged sun disc is depicted, underneath which are five columns of carved inscription. In the register below to the left is Amun-Re, a goddess and another deity, facing Montu-Re and a goddess.


Stela of Khons-hotep


 Amun is wearing the double crown with feathers and the falcon-headed Montu-Re a sun disc with uraeus and double feathers. They are both holding was-sceptres.

There is an offering table between the two groups of figures. In the bottom register on the left is the upper part of a figure of Amenhotep I and the head of Ahmose-Nefertari.

Ancient Egypt knife

Bone knife

A knife bone, probably used in the leather. It could also possibly be a gauge compensation. The knife is smoothed on one side, but retains its natural texture of the other.
 

Ancient Egypt knife



Ancient Egypt knife

 Discovered during excavations by the Egypt Exploration Society at el-Amarna during the 1928-29 season, the knife was purchased by the Castle Museum, Norwich, 1956.


Ancient Egyptian Anklets

Ancient Egyptian Anklets
 

Anklets was one of the types of jewelry that was 
s wears by ancient Egyptians

Ancient Egyptian Anklets
Anklet of elliptic shape. On its edges, it is decorated with geometric motives of triangles and grille. The decoration has a ponderous appearance, but its design is of great beauty and skill.

Ancient Egyptian Anklets

Circular anklet, elliptic in profile, with engraved decoration on both ends. Design of triangles and latticework.


Ancient Egyptian Anklets


Anklet, more or less elliptical in cross-section, with incised decoration consisting of a lattice pattern framed by a double incised line and triangles.

Ancient Egyptian Anklets

Anklet, more or less circular in shape and elliptic in cross-section. No decoration.


Mesehti Usekh Collar

Usekh Collar and Two Bracelets from the Tomb of Mesehti


A broad collar and two bracelets were found among the collection of the Mayor of Asiut, Mesehti.

The bracelets are composed of four rows of slender tubular beads of greenish and blue faïence, arranged alternately.

Usekh Collar and Two Bracelets from the Tomb of Mesehti

The collar has an outer row of leaf-shaped pendants of the same material and a pair of semicircular shoulder plates.

The form of the collar was achieved by using beads that decrease gradually in length from the upper to the lower rows and from the center of each row to the ends.

Sheshonq II Bracelet


Gold Bracelet with Scarab of King Sheshonq II

The piece of jewelry belongs to King Sheshonq the Second. The ends of the rigid bracelet are in the shape of lotus flowers with details that were once inlaid.

Gold Bracelet with Scarab of King Sheshonq the Second

The ends of the plain gold bracelet are joined by a finely detailed scarab of lapis lazuli. The body of the scarab is enclosed in a gold frame.

2014/05/27

Tutankhamun Winged Scarab Pendant

The Winged Scarab Pendant of Tutankhamun


This golden pendant of cloisonne technique is inlaid with semiprecious stones and colored glass. The central element of the composition is a winged scarab of chalcedony, grasping on one side a lotus and on the other a papyrus flower, flanked by two uraei, or cobras.

Tutankhamun Winged Scarab Pendant

 A gold frame outlines the main composition and supports pendants of lotus flowers, papyrus, and poppy seed heads. A slim solar boat rests upon the front feet of the scarab and carries the Udjat eye of Horus, flanked by two uraei.

The Udjat eye is surmounted by a lunar crescent of gold and a silver disk with images of the gods, Thoth and Re-Horakhty, crowning the central figure of the king.

Vase with Names of Tutankhamun and Ankhesenamun

Vase with Names of Tutankhamun and Ankhesenamun


The upper part of this splendid alabaster vase is decorated with cornices and plants. It is set on a pedestal in a form of a stool. The body of the vase is adorned with three cartouches bearing the name of King Tutankhamun and that of his consort, Queen Ankhesenamun.


The left side bears the figure of a uraeus, or royal cobra, wearing the Red Crown and holding the Was and Shen scepters.

Cup in the Form of Open Lotus and Two Birds


This chalice in the form of a lotus is decorated with a whorl of circles and sepals in low relief. The handle is a lotus flower and bud supporting the symbol of eternal life. The cup bears the names and titles of King Tutankhamun.

Cup in the Form of Open Lotus and Two Birds

The text around the rim expresses wishes for the king to live millions of years and to enjoy great happiness. On each side of the cup there are two birds.

2014/05/26

Ceremonial Sickle of Tutankhamun

Ceremonial Sickle of Tutankhamun




Sickles were important tools used by farmers to harvest their crops. Since the early Dynastic period, wooden sickles with flint blades attached with resin were placed in tombs for use in the hereafter.

This marvelous model sickle of Tutankhamun is made of gilded wood and decorated with the cartouches of the king, bearing his birth and throne names. The serrated blades are made of colored glass.

Ceremonial Sickle of Tutankhamun

The sickle was probably used for ceremonies in which the king himself took part during Peret, the annual harvest feast. The deceased king also could use the sickle in the afterlife to harvest his crops or cut down any evil that might oppose him during his journey in the underworld.


The Dagger and Sheath of King Tutankhamun

The Dagger and Sheath of King Tutankhamun

The Dagger and Sheath of King Tutankhamun



Daggers were used by the ancient Egyptians from predynastic times onwards, though examples dating from the Old Kingdom are exceedingly rare. During the Middle Kingdom and the New Kingdom they were generally made of copper or bronze; gold, apart from its use for purposes of embellishment, was probably reserved for royalty. Queen Ahhotpe, mother of Ahmosis I, the founder of the Eighteenth Dynasty, had, in her funerary equipment, a solid gold dagger and sheath, both of which are now in the Cairo Museum. Tutankhamun's mummy was provided with two daggers encased in gold sheaths, one with an iron blade and the other with a blade of hardened gold. It is the latter specimen which is shown here.

As an illustration of the goldsmith's artistic ability and technical skill, this dagger, and particularly its sheath, are among the outstanding pieces of the collection. On the top of the pommel are the king's cartouches in applied embossed gold and a wreath of lily-palmettes in cloisonne work. On the underside are two figures of falcons holding in each claw the hieroglyphic symbol for 'eternity' (shen). The falcon was often represented in Egyptian art holding this symbol and, with wings outstretched, protecting a king. Probably it was intended to serve an amuletic purpose in this instance also. A similar motif appears on the haft of a dagger in the Metropolitan Museum which bears the name of Tuthmosis I and it may have been a characteristic feature of royal daggers at this period. Below the pommel, the haft is decorated with alternate bands of geometric designs in granulated gold work and lily palmette designs in gold cloisonne work of semi-precious stones and glass, a central band of minute red and blue circular disks breaking the regularity of the palmette ornamentation. At the base of the hilt, applied in gold wire, is a band of continuous spirals within a rope pattern border, thus conveying to the eye the suggestion that the haft is bound to the blade.

In striking contrast with the ornate haft, the decoration of the blade, which is tinged with red, is simple. At the top, incised on both faces, is a plain horizontal band, which also suggests a tie, over a design consisting of a diamond pattern chain bordered beneath by two horizontal lines, the spaces between the diamonds being filled with dots. Under this frieze is engraved an elegant palmette with poppies surmounting two perpendicular grooves which converge at the base and resemble floral stems.

The obverse of the gold sheath is almost entirely covered with a feather pattern decoration in cloisonne work, relieved at the top by a palmette frieze and at the pointed base by a jackal's head. Of far greater interest is the elaborate design on the reverse. First comes a line of inscription reading: 'The Good God, possessor of a strong arm, Nebkheperure, given life'. A row of continuous spirals follows and then two loops of palmette design, by means of which the sheath was attached to the girdle. The main scene, embossed in high relief, is composed of the following elements: an ibex attacked by a lion, a calf with a hound on its back biting the calf's tail, a leopard and a lion attacking a male ibex from above and below, a hound biting a bull, and lastly a calf in full flight. Interspersed between the animals are stylized plants, and a more elaborate floral device occupies the pointed base.

Although there is no reason to doubt that this sheath was made in Egypt, the decoration of the reverse includes artistic features which have a foreign appearance. The band of continuous spirals, the style of the rosette on the shoulder of the second lion, the summary treatment of the skins of the animals and the floral motif at the base have parallels in the art of northern Syria at this period and they also have Minoan or Mycenaean affinities. Scenes of workshops painted on the walls of private tombs at Thebes sometimes include Asiatic craftsmen at work side by side with the far more numerous Egyptian artisans; they were very probably employed on account of their ability to reproduce artistic styles which were familiar to them but new to the Egyptians. Like so many other importations in the history of Egypt, however, these innovations were quickly absorbed and given the general character of native products.



The Dagger and Sheath of King Tutankhamun



Among the interesting items found in the wrappings of the king's mummy are two wonderful daggers with their sheaths.

This dagger has a gold sheath, decorated on the front with a feather pattern and on the back with a palmetto design.

The significance of the dagger lies in its blade, made of approximately 97 percent iron and 3 percent nickel, a precious rarity in an age that still depended on copper for weaponry.

The handle is exquisitely decorated with gold granulation and glass inlays and is fitted with a knob of rock crystal.

Scribe's Palette with the Names of Meritaten and Nefertiti






The ivory scribe's palette is one of several found between the paws of the jackal god Anubis in the Treasury of the tomb of King Tutankhamun. It has six hollow spaces for colored inks and a slot for the pens.

The palette surprisingly bears the name of Meritaten, the sister of Ankhesenamun, who was the king's wife.

Meritaten was the daughter of Akhenaten and Nefertiti, and the palette bears her name and titles and those of her mother.

Finely Carved Headrest

Headrests were known in Egypt from the time of the Old Kingdom. Under the neck of Tutankhamun's mummy a model headrest was placed.

Finely Carved Headrest

Several real headrests were found among the king's funerary furniture. This headrest is one of these. It is in the traditional shape of a flat rectangular base, a central shaft, and a curved neck support.

The headrest is adorned by one column of hieroglyphic inscription that gives the two names of King Tutankhamun.

Pair of Sandals Depicting the King's Enemies

Pair of Sandals Depicting the King's Enemies


Pair of Sandals Depicting the King's Enemies



Egyptians usually went barefoot, but on some occasions kings wore very elaborately decorated sandals. Some sandals were made of gold. The sandals were tied with two thongs and their tips pointed upward.

This pair of sandals is made of leather and has depictions of enemies on the soles. Four human figures portraying Asian and African neighbors, who were the traditional enemies of Egypt, are shown. The men are depicted as prisoners, lying prostrate with their arms bound behind their backs.

The Pharaoh would symbolically trample on them when he wore his sandals. The sandals are also adorned on the top and bottom by the nine bows, symbols of the traditional enemies of Egypt.

The Fire Lighter of Tutankhamun

The Fire Lighter of Tutankhamun






Among the interesting household items found in the tomb of Tutankhamun is this genuine and unique wooden fire lighter, which the ancient Egyptians used for creating fire. The fire lighter functions through the fast rotating, by hand or by using a bow with thongs, of the fire stick into drill holes. 






The fire stick has 12 holes that contain resin to create the spark by friction which then ignites the nearby tinder.

The drill stick is topped by a separate head which helped the user to hold it steady.

The Trappings of King Tutankhamun's Mummy

The Trappings of King Tutankhamun's Mummy

The Trappings of King Tutankhamun's Mummy


King Tutankhamun's mummy was adorned over the first bandages around the waist with a belt of both gold and glazed beads.

Slightly above there is a pectoral of bright blue glass, shaped like the protector Udjat eye, which is supported by a necklace of shiny beads. 

The Trappings of King Tutankhamun's Mummy

There is also a golden Ba bird, representing the soul, and gold bands, inlaid with multicolored glass paste, containing sacred texts for the protection of the deceased king.


the Rising Sun Pectoral of Tutankhamun

Pectoral of Tutankhamun of the Rising Sun




This is one of the finest of the many pectorals found in the king's tomb. It has a large lapis lazuli scarab in the center, flanked by two uraei, or royal cobras.

The scarab, standing on a solar boat, is pushing a carnelian disk which represents the rising sun and is flanked by symbols of stability, long life, and beauty.

An elaborate chain consists of uraei and scarabs on Heb, or festival, signs.


Shield with King Tutankhamun Slaying His Enemies

Shield with King Tutankhamun Slaying His Enemies

Shield with King Tutankhamun Slaying His Enemies


Among the military equipment found in the tomb of Tutankhamun were eight shields, four of which are ceremonial and are of openwork wood, incised and gilded.

On this shield, a winged sun disk curves around the top, protecting the king who is shown with a scimitar in one hand and holding two lions by their tails in his other hand. The lions symbolize the enemies of Egypt.

Behind the king, the vulture goddess, Nekhbet, spreads out her wings for the king's protection. Below, a band of decoration suggests the mountains of the desert.

Ankh Mirror Box of Tutankhamun

The Mirror Case in the Form of an Ankh of Tutankhamun

Ankh Mirror Box of Tutankhamun


Mirrors, made of polished gold, silver, copper, or bronze, were part of the cosmetic accessories of women and men. They were sometimes preserved in cases such as this elaborate one in the form of an Ankh, or life sign.

 It is carved in gold-plated wood and the king's name is inlaid on the lid with colored glass and semiprecious stones. The interior of the case is lined with silver. The mirror it once contained was not found.

 


Originally the case contained a mirror, but when Carter examined the large cartouche-shaped chest placed in the Treasury, he found that the thieves had already stolen the mirror. He suggested, therefore, that it was probably made of a precious material. The case consists of two parts, both of which were made of wood overlaid in sheet gold. Thin sheets of silver lined the interior, and the same metal was used for the knobs by which the case was sealed. Colored glass is used for the majority of the inlays on the lid, but carnelian and quartz were utilized as well.

An inscription with Tutankhamun's names, epithets, and relationship to specific gods is written around the loop of the upper sections of both parts of the box and also in a column in the vertical part. Within the loop of the lower part of the case are two cartouches, each with a uraeus at its side. The cartouches, which contain the throne and personal names of the king, and the serpents, are surmounted by solar disks. The corresponding area on the lid has the throne name of the king written with a winged beetle in place of the traditional one.

It is flanked by two serpents whose heads are surmounted by solar disks and whose tails terminate in the hieroglyphic sign for "infinity" (shen). Below the name is a lotus, and the entire composition, inlaid in glass and semiprecious stones, was probably meant to be a reference to a myth involving the birth of the sun god.

The shape of the case takes the form of the hieroglyph ankh which can mean not only "life," but also "mirror." Such a use illustrates the adaptability and versatility of the writing system of ancient Egypt.

2014/05/25

Tutankhamun Ivory headrest with god Shu

Tutankhamun Ivory headrest with god Shu


God Shu covers the pillar of this headrest, he is represented with upraised arms lifting the arch of the headrest which symbolizes the sky goddess “Nut”. He rests on the representation of the earth (or Geb), which forms the base of the headrest.

  Ivory headrest with god Shu of Tutankhamun

 The Sa sign of protection is hung at his shoulders. The two parts of the headrest are connected by means of metal pegs. Flanking Shu we can see two lions, symbolizing the Akhet sign with the two mountains and the sun rising in between, sign of resurrection and rebirth, also they could represent the Aker lions (the eastern and western mountains). 

Each lion has a tuft of hair on its shoulder which could have been a seal to mark that they belong to a specific king’s court.

The tomb of King Tut

The tomb of King Tutankhamun


The tomb, located in an area that was not normally used for royal burials in the center of the valley, was apparently quickly buried deep below the surface of the Valley of the Kings on the west bank of Luxor (ancient Thebes ). It was forgotten until Howard Carter discovered November 4, 1922. Part of the chance of Howard Carter is that he was not discovered earlier when his predecessor in the Valley, Theodore Davis, who was American, came just over a meter to find him itself.



It is a little known fact that Howard Carter did not search all parts of the valley of the King, down to bedrock in his search for Tutankhamun. After identifying the area in the center of the valley, most likely to produce the kind of find his patron desired; and who would indeed do so, for many years before he seems to have spent much of his efforts to find answers to many questions most academic, such as hunting for foundation deposits - in order to clarify that the king was actually responsible for the construction of this tomb, and did hard in his search for Tutankhamun's tomb, when it became clear that his source of funds could be about to dry up.



Howard Carter was said, before finding the grave, that Lord Carnarvon was withdrawing from the project, but after pleading his case, was given one more season of excavation in order to find it.In fact, we are told that, after having first discovered the steps of the tomb on November 4th, Carter initially telegraphed Lord Carnarvon, who was still at his estate in England Hampshire, after which Carter filled the stairs to wait the arrival of his benefactor. Upon arrival of Lord Carnarvon on November 24, work resumed on November 26 and inside was observed for the first time since antiquity.


After its discovery, the worldwide media spectacle the discovery created films about the curse of the mummies that are still produced every so often, is probably as interesting as the tomb itself. Many people do not realize is that it took Carter, with attention to detail, a decade to fully explore, excavate and clear the tomb. Legend has it that Carter posted the first notice of the discovery of the tomb on the bulletin board at the Old Winter Palace Hotel in Luxor.
Tutankhamen was certainly not one of the greatest of Egyptian pharaohs. In fact, before the discovery of his tomb in 1922, little of his life was known. Today we know much more about this king, but surprisingly little of this knowledge comes the treasures of his tomb. Tutankhamun died around 1325 BC, after only nine years of rule. Apparently, he died suddenly quite as good a royal tomb, to our knowledge, has never been prepared for this pharaoh. Instead, the tomb of Tutankhamen is relatively small and follows a more frequently in non-royal tombs. Some scholars believe that the tomb that King Ay was eventually interred in was actually begun for Tutankhamen.


In fact, the tomb of Tutankhamun is not as interesting as other tombs in the Valley of the Kings. It consists of an entrance leading to a single corridor, followed by several annexes for funerary equipment. At a 90 degree right angle is the small burial chamber, with another annex attached bringing in the direction of the entrance. It's not much of a tomb compared to other royal tombs, and most of all burial materials will not be found here, but rather in the Egyptian Museum of Antiquities in Cairo, if it is nowhere else on the show.


 
Only the burial chamber received decorations. Here, all the walls have the same origin gold. On the west wall we find scenes depicting apes in the first hour of the Amduat. On the south wall the king is followed by Anubis as he appears before Hathor. Here, there is also a scene of King being welcomed into the underworld by Hathor, Anubis and Isis. The north wall shows King beforeNut with the royal ka embracing Osiris. On the same wall, there is also the scene of Ay performing the opening of the mouth ritual before the mummy of Tutankhamun. Finally, on the east wall, Tutankhamun's mummy is depicted being pulled on a sled during the funeral procession. In the procession are two viziers to the king, and a third person who might be Horemheb.It should be noted that this tomb was not found intact. In fact, there were at least two flights of the tomb, perhaps soon after Tutankhamen's burial, probably by members of the tomb workers.