2014/11/14

Model Altar in the Form of a Temple Facade

This pylon, or gateway, was discovered at Tell el-Amarna. It is related to the cult of the royal family, which has been noticed in stela found in private houses at Amarna. It was believed that the royal family acted as intermediaries between the gods and the people.

Model Altar in the Form of a Temple Facade


This example is a household altar, or shrine, in the form of the pylon of the temple. The walls of the two wings of the pylon are symmetrically decorated with scenes of the king, Queen Nefertiti, and their eldest daughter. They are worshiping and making offerings to the god.

The king with his swollen belly wears the Blue Crown on his customarily exaggerated head. The queen wears a tall Blue Crown and a long transparent garment. The sun disk, the Aten, radiates his benefits of life and energy to the royal couple.

2014/11/13

Column of King Niuserre

Graceful and well-proportioned columns were carved in different styles and topped with capitals in the shape of a lotus, papyrus, or palm. Some columns were also decorated with the head of the goddess Hathor and are called Hathoric columns.

Column of King Niuserre


This six-sided column has a capital in the form of a closed papyrus. It was one of many that supported the ceiling of the temple of Niuserre at Abusir. The names and titles of the king are engraved on its body.

2014/11/12

Model of a Column

Columns were introduced into temples in order to simulate nature and to identify mankind again with nature. The first tentative attempts at columns are still visible in the Step Pyramid of Saqqara. 

Model of a Column


Columns in Ancient Egypt were in many forms such as bundles of papyrus; papyrus stems and lotus stems; palmiform, or palm-like; or campaniform, or bell-shaped.

The capital of this column is in the form of a lotus flower and its details are carved in relief. The shaft is cylindrical and is set on a rounded base.

2014/11/11

18th Dynasty columns

As indicated by isolated cartouches, these three 18th Dynasty columns were made for Tuthmosis IV. Some twohundred years later, they were usurped by Merenptah and Sethos II, and most of the cartouches name these kings. Much later, the columns were reused in the construction of the Kunsthistorisches Museum, where they now serve as supporting elements in rooms I and V.

18th Dynasty columns



2014/11/10

Fragment from the temple of Montuhotep II at Deir el-Bahari

This fragment of limestone comes from the temple of Montuhotep II at Deir el-Bahari. At the left, one notices the forearm and hand of a person who holds the ankh-sign of life.  The rest of the fragment contains three columns of hieroglyphs in finely painted relief.


Fragment from the temple of Montuhotep II at Deir el-Bahari




Funerary relief From Temple of Ptah

This fragment of relief was found in the temple of Ptah during the excavations of W. F. Petrie at Memphis in 1908. Representing a funeral scene stemming from a tomb of the 5th Dynasty, the block was re-used in the Ramesside Period.


Funerary relief From Temple of Ptah

The relief show bearers of offerings who head towards the funerary chapel of the deceased with pomp.

2014/11/09

Relief belongs to Ramessesnakht

This fragment of limestone relief belongs to Ramessesnakht, an important character who had the functions of scribe of the king,  general and majordomo of the Ramesseum and  commander of the archers.

The piece comes from his tomb which was probably situated in the necropolis of Saqqara. On the relief, the head of Toui, the wife of Ramessesnakht, can still be seen.

Relief belongs to Ramessesnakht


She was known as "singer of Hathor, mistress of the Sycamore of the South". This specific title is one of the testimonies in favour of the Memphite provenance of the piece.

2014/11/08

Ptahkouou Offering scene


This limestone relief, part of the Leopold II collection, represents the deceased Ptahkouou seated before an offering table. His title of "chief of craftsmen" and his name are written in large hieroglyphs above his head. His wife, Khenout, who bears the title of "priestess of Hathor", is found just behind him.

Ptahkouou Offering scene

Ptahkouou Offering scene

Ptahkouou Offering scene


The mother of the deceased, Tchentet, is seated on the other side of the offering table. The relief, which dates from the second half of the Old Kingdom, is particularly distinguished by the numerous traces of blue turquoise colour.


2014/11/07

Nefer Hotep and His Son

This relief is carved on a framed slab. It depicts Nefer-Hotep standing and wearing a leopard skin as a sign of his priestly rank. In front of him stands his son, who is embracing the leg of his father.

The upper frame is inscribed with the names and titles of the deceased, who was a scribe and a priest. An offering formula is also inscribed.

Nefer Hotep and His Son





Harvest scene from the tomb of Seshem-nefer IV

This harvest scene is composed of three wall segments. The bottom register shows the transport of large sacks of barley to the threshing floor. To the right are two labourers who pile up the goods. The middle register has scenes of the harvest of flax and barley, carried out with sickles.

Harvest scene from the tomb of Seshem-nefer IV


To the right is an overseer inspecting the work's progress. The uppermost register continued the agricultural theme, but this has now all but disappeared.


2014/11/06

Relief fragment with butchering scene


This relief bears scenes and inscriptions in raised relief. The front depicts the butchering of animals. It is probably one of three similar scenes of which only the middle one has been preserved intact. One front and both hind legs of the animals have been tied together with rope.

Relief fragment with butchering scene


The other front leg is stretched upwards being severed from the body by the butcher. Two other men are acting as assistants. The original paint on the relief is partly preserved: red-brown, red and blue. The relief may well come from one of the royal funerary temples at Abu Sir.

2014/11/05

Fragment of scene

A limestone fragment of a scene, from either a stela or a wall. The scene depicts the god Amun handing the emblems of the Sed-festival to King Amenmesse. The god wears the distinctive tall, plumed headdress, collar, armlets and bracelets. 

Fragment of scene


Only the hand of the king remains to be seen. The workmanship is very fine and the preservation was described as 'good'.

2014/11/04

Offering list in three pieces

Offering list in three pieces

 Three fragments of an offering list. Hieroglyphs and dividing lines are carved in sunk relief.

Offering list in three pieces

Tomb relief of Kheti


This relief carries a depiction of the funerary offering in a naive kind of sunk relief, still with most of its colours preserved. A standing couple is shown receiving an ox leg from a man standing opposite. In front of the pair is an offering table laden with gifts, and next to the woman some toilet articles are depicted. The father Kheti and his son Montu-hetepu are depicted with short hair, without wigs, as well as collars and short kilts.

The woman is called Henet; she is wearing a dress suspended by two shoulder straps. Upon the offering table are the following items: a wild goose, a closed ceramic jug, a bunch of grapes, a calf's head, an unidentified white object with white stripes, a round cake, a bunch of spring onions, a flat dish with figs, and a gherkin covered by a palm leaf. Beneath the table a closed jar and a plate on a stand are shown.

Tomb relief of Kheti


The toilet articles of the woman consist of a mirror in a slip case and a box with an eye-paint container and a jar of ointment. The entire scene has been overlaid with a grid according to the classical canon of proportions, which divides the standing human figure into eighteen hand widths between the soles of the feet and the brow. The stela dates to the early Middle Kingdom, when this version of the canon had only recently been introduced.

2014/11/03

Wall relief from tomb of Ni-ui-netjer

Important parts of the offering chamber of the mastaba tomb of Ni-ui-netjer are in Vienna. In one of its scenes, the tomb owner is represented at the dinner table. His family is represented on a smaller scale.

The secondary figures, such as the servants who bring the food, have been depicted on an even smaller scale. Among the latter is also a group of dancing girls.

Wall relief from tomb of Ni-ui-netjer

Wall relief from tomb of Ni-ui-netjer



 Seven dancers of normal stature and one dwarf are shown moving to the rhythm of music being made by three other women, not in the photo. Some of the dancers shake sistrums. The troupe was engaged for the diversion of Ni-ui-netjer and his family during a festive meal.

2014/11/02

Goddess Maat wearing a tripartite wig

A fragment of a wall relief showing the upper part of an image of the goddess Maat wearing a tripartite wig, a wide usekh collar, bracelets, and a tunic supported by shoulder-straps. Her head is surmounted by her emblem, a feather, the symbol of truth and justice.


Goddess Maat wearing a tripartite wig

2014/11/01

Royal Scribe Iuty

Fragment of a relief showing the "royal scribe" Iuty sitting before an offering table. He is wearing a ceremonial ankle-length, wide-sleeved costume, bracelets and a necklace.

His feet are shod in ritual sandals and the scented cone has been placed on top of his shaven head. Iuty is sitting on a high-backed animal-legged chair and is resting his feet on a square pedestal. He is holding the sceptre"sekhem" in his right hand while his left hand reaches out to the offering table.

Royal Scribe Iuty


The latter is small and contains a schematic representation of some food such as bread and vegetables. Before him there are four lines of inscription.