2015/10/29

What are the names of the Gods and Goddesses ?

Ancient Egypt Gods & Goddesses

In ancient Egyptian Religion the gods and goddesses often appear in families of 3 or of 9. Every larger town had its divine family to whom shrines were built. The same divine names occurs in multiple towns and divine families at the same time.

Ancient Egypt's Gods were invisible to humans but they were able to ascend to earth and inhabit statues or animals and through these manifest their will to the priests, who then delivered the messages to ordinary people.

Ancient Egypt's Gods are represented as animals or humans, or half of each. The animal with which the god or goddess is identified often has some qualities that is adopted by the divinity. Furthermore, they have different crowns to help characterize them.

The goddess Hathor nursing Hatshepsut, Deir el-Bahri
The goddess Hathor nursing Hatshepsut, Deir el-Bahri


Following is an alphabetized list of some of the more important or often mentioned gods and goddesses in ancient Egyptian religion.

Amun, Amun-Ra
He is the principal god of Thebes; he became increasingly important during the New Kingdom and was eventually elevated to the role of a tutelary divinity in various parts of Egypt. He is represented wearing a crown with two long plumes.

Anubis
He is a male divinity with the head of a jackal, presided over the funerary cult and was believed to have invented the technique of mummification. He accompanied the dead person to the hereafter and was therefore identified with Mercury during the Roman period.

Aten
He is the solar disc and the source of life and heat. He is first mentioned mentioned as a divinity under Amenhotep III. However, it was during the reign of Amenhotep IV – Akhenaten – that his cult, mainly instituted to counter the authority of the priesthood of Amun, was precisely codified and started to become widespread in Egypt. When Akhenaten died, the worship of Aten was suppressed.

Atum
He was the primordial solar divinity and the patron of Heliopolis. He was symbolized by the setting sun and was represented as a man wearing a double crown to symbolize his rule over the whole of Egypt.

Hathor
She was the incarnation of the quintessence of femininity and was widely worshipped in many areas of Egypt. She is represented as a cow or a woman with cow’s ears.

Horus
He was the son of Osiris and Isis. He is often represented as a falcon or a falcon-headed man. He was worshipped in various parts of Egypt and the reigning king was identified with him.

Isis

She was the wife of Osiris and the mother of Horus. She was widely worshipped throughout the Mediterranean in Roman times. During the pharaonic period she was depicted as a woman with a throne or a solar disc and two cow’s horns on her head.

Maat
She was the goddess of justice and the daughter of Ra. She is shown as a woman wearing an ostrich feather on her head. She represents the principal of order which inspires the king as he governs the ostrich feather. She also appears as a counterweight to the dead person’s heart on Anubis’s weighing scale when the dead are judged.

Nephthys
She was the sister and wife of Seth. She was involved with her sister Isis in seeking and remaking the dismembered body of Osiris. She is represented as a woman with her own name in hieroglyphs on her head.

Osiris
He was the brother and husband of Isis. He was born of the union between the sky goddess Nut and the earth god Geb. He became king of Egypt and was then killed by his brother Seth. He was worshipped as the king of the dead and represented as a mummy and with the atef, a white crown with two ostrich plumes.

Ra
He was the sun god and was mainly worshipped at Heliopolis. He is shown as a man with the head of a falcon crowned with the solar discs.

Selqet
She was a scorpion-goddess and the protector of the king and the boat of the sun since the remotest antiquity. She is shown as a woman with a scorpion on her head.

Seth
He was the god of darkness, death, the desert and chaos. He killed his brother Osiris.


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Ancient Egyptian Kings List

The Abydos King List consists of seventy-six kings and pharaohs of Ancient Egypt which are found on the walls of the Temple of Seti I at Abydos, Egypt. Besides providing the order of the Old Kingdom rulers it is the sole source to date of the names of many of the rulers of the Seventh and Eighth Dynasties. This list is, thus, extremely valuable.


Ancient Egyptian Kings List



First Dynasty

1. Meni
2. Teti
3. Iti
4. Septi
5. Meribiap
6. Semsu
7. Qebeh

Second Dynasty

1. Bedjau
2. Kakau
3. Banetjer
4. Wadjnas
5. Sendi
6. Djadjay

Third Dynasty

1. Nebka
2. Netjerykhet Djoser
3. Teti
4. Sedjes
5. Neferkara

Fourth Dynasty

1. Sneferu
2. Khufu
3. Djedefre
4. Khafra
5. Menkaura
6. Shepseskaf

Fifth Dynasty

1. Userkaf
2. Sahure
3. Kakai
4. Neferefre
5. Nyuserre
6. Menkauhor
7. Djedkare
8. Unis

Sixth Dynasty

1. Teti
2. Usekare
3. Meryre
4. Merenre
5. Neferkare
6. Merenre Saemsaf

Seventh/Eighth Dynasty

1. Netjerikare
2. Menkare
3. Neferkare II
4. Neferkare Neby
5. Djedkare Shemai
6. Neferkare Khendu
7. Merenhor
8. Sneferka

Ninth Dynasty

1. Nikare
2. Neferkare Tereru
3. Neferkahor
4. Neferkare Pepiseneb
5. Sneferka Anu
6. Kaukara
7. Neferkaure
8. Neferkauhor
9. Neferirkare

Eleventh/Twelfth Dynasty

1. Nebhepetre
2. Sankhkare
3. Sehetepibre
4. Kheperkare
5. Nebukaure
6. Khakeperre
7. Khakaure
8. Nemaatre
9. Maakherure

Eighteenth Dynasty

1. Nebpehtira
2. Djeserkara
3. Aakheperkara
4. Aakheperenra
5. Menkheperra
6. Aakheperura
7. Menkheperura
8. Nebmaatra
9. Djeserkheperura
Setepenra

Nineteenth Dynasty

1. Menpehtira
2. Menmaatra

2015/10/27

6 Interesting facts about Egypt

  Egypt is a country which has political and cultural significance for the Middle East. Egypt derived its English name from various sources like the French word Egypte, from Latin Aegyptus and ancient Greek Aigyptos. Facts include farming, paintings, education, religious beliefs and other things that related to and explained the Egyptian lifestyle.

  Egypt is one of the countries in Africa and the Middle East. The ancient name for Egypt is Kemet meaning 'black land'. It had obtained its name owing to the fertile black soil found on the plains of the Nile river which flows through Egypt. Egypt is also known for its historical monuments like the Giza pyramid complex and even the Egyptian civilization holds a lot of importance.


 6 Interesting facts about Egypt


1. Most Ancient Egyptian pyramids were built as tombs for pharaohs (rulers of Ancient Egypt) and their families. To date, over 130 pyramids have been discovered in Egypt.

2. The Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt were the supreme leaders of the land. They were like kings or emperors. They ruled both upper and lower Egypt and were both the political and religious leader. The Pharaoh was often thought of as one of the gods.

3. The Egyptian writing called hieroglyphics used pictures to represent different objects, actions, sound or ideas. There were more than 700 hieroglyphs. Some pictures stood for whole words.

4. They were one of the first civilizations to invent writing. They also used ink to write and paper called papyrus.

5. The Pharaoh kept his hair covered. It was not to be seen by regular people.

6. It probably took between 20,000 to 30,000 workers over 80 years to build the Pyramids at Giza!



2015/10/26

What clothes did the Egyptians wear?

What clothes did the Egyptians wear?

The Egyptians wore clothes made from linen. Linen is made from the fibres of the flax plant which the Egyptians grew.

What did the Egyptian slaves wear?

Egyptian slaves wore loincloths made of animal hide and linen and simple tunic dresses for the women. A loincloth was a piece of material that was fastened around men’s waist.

The ancient Egyptians both men and women wore linen clothes all throughout the hot weather. The men wore short skirts around their waists called kilts, while the women wore straight fitting dresses with straps on their shoulders. 

The wealthy men wore pleated kilts, and the older men wore a longer kilt. When doing hard work, men wore a loin cloth, and women wore a short skirt. Children usually ran around nude during the summer months.




 Ancient Egyptian Clothes

Ancient Egyptian Pharaohs Clothing

Ancient Egypt Clothing

 Ancient Egypt Clothing

 Ancient Egypt Clothing







2015/10/24

Egyptian Middle Kingdom

After years of fighting, the family in Thebes prevailed. They reunited Egypt under Mentuhotep II, leader of the last phase of the struggle against the Herakleopolitans. On becoming king, Mentuhotep took the kingly title “He who gives heart to the two lands.” (This kingly title was called a Horusname, after Horus, the falcon-headed god who was the traditional protector of Egyptian kings. The king is the physical embodiment of Horus on earth. To the ancient Egyptians, he was Horus.)

Egyptian Middle Kingdom

Egyptian Middle Kingdom

Egyptian Middle Kingdom




Egyptian Middle Kingdom

Egyptian Middle Kingdom

Egyptian Middle Kingdom




In his 14th year of rule, he crushed a major rebellion in Abydos, securing his control of Upper Egypt. He changed his Horus-name to “Lord of the white crown.” It was not until his 39th year of rule that he reunited Upper and Lower Egypt. He changed his Horus-name to “Uniter of the two lands.” So began the Middle Kingdom, which lasted 350 years and encompassed Dynasties 11 (late) to 14 (1980 B.C.E. to 1630 B.C.E.). With strong central control, peace and prosperity returned. Mentuhotep II, ruling from Thebes, built a temple-tomb for himself at Deir el-Bahari, west of the city.

He handed on to his son, Mentuhotep III, a stable, united Egypt. Mentuhotep II and the kings who followed faced a new Egypt  one that had experienced chaos and misery. For the rest of the dynastic era, the suffering of the First Intermediate Period was remembered as a warning about what happens when order breaks down. Faced with a growing population (perhaps 1.5 million people by 2000 B.C.E.), Middle Kingdom kings concentrated on expanding trade and agriculture, promoting the welfare of the country and keeping the peace.

Unlike the all-powerful god-kings of the Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom rulers could not harness the entire wealth of the nation to build lavish tombs. Pyramid building was revived during the Middle Kingdom, but they were not as large as the ones of the Old Kingdom. Instead of building lavish tombs, they devoted their attention and resources to repairs, land reclamation, irrigation, and harbors. They strengthened border defenses, dealing quickly and firmly with incursions by Libyans and Bedouins. They renewed long-neglected diplomatic and trading relationships. Ambassadors and trade expeditions traveled to the ancient Phoenician city of Byblos, and other cities in the Near East, as well as Nubia and Punt.

A new middle class of independent professionals, artisans, and tradesmen arose. Many farmers owned their own land, weakening the old system of  feudal estates. Secular (non-religious) literature stories, poetry, songs, satires, proverbs, and wisdom literature (proverbs, collections of wise sayings, morality tales, fables, and advice to the young from their elders) became popular. Stories called pessimistic literature reminded Egyptians about the misery of civil war, lest they forget. With Thebes now the capital, the traditional Theban god Amun became prominent.

He merged with Heliopolis’s sun god Re, becoming Amun-Re. The Theban kings provided lavish support and rich gifts to Amun-Re’s priesthood and temples.  Unlike the all-powerful god-kings of the Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom rulers could not harness the entire wealth of the nation to build lavish tombs. Pyramid building was revived during the Middle Kingdom, but they wree not as large as the ones of the Old Kingdom. The rapidly-growing cult of Osiris promised even poor peasants a pleasant afterlife. The Pyramid Texts were updated to apply to the wider range of spirits now eligible for eternal life. The revised spells, called the Coffin Texts, were painted or carved on wooden coffins.

The new middle class of artisans started mass-producing grave goods: pottery, ushabtis, serdab statues (small statues of a dead person, sealed into a niche or chamber in the tomb), furniture, models, and more. The Governor of the South and vizier of Mentuhotep IV overthrew his king to become Amenemhet I, founder of the Twelfth Dynasty. His 29-year reign gave Egypt its first extended period of stability and security in more than 200 years. His first move was to build and furnish a boat to cruise the Nile, putting nomarchs in their place and crushing troublesome Asiatics and Nubians. To consolidate his power over Upper and Lower Egypt at a more strategic location, Amenemhet I established a new capital at Itj-tawy, about 20 miles south of Memphis. He introduced “co-regency” (a king sharing power with his heir) to strengthen royal succession and eliminate the instability that often followed a king’s death.

Co-regency made royal transitions much smoother, and was adopted by several later kings. Amenemhet shared the throne with his son, Senwosret, for 10 years. Senwosret handled the military and kept the frontiers secure. He established fortified towns and trading posts as far south as the third cataract. When Senwosret I took the throne, he continued his military ac- tivities, securing Egypt’s southern border at the second cataract with 13 forts. He sent mining expeditions to Nubia, Syria, and the western oases.

He built a magnificent solar temple at Heliopolis. The 34-year reign of his son, Amenemhet II, saw great achieve- ments. The king widened and deepened the canal that fed the Faiyum from the Nile, expanding hunting, fishing, and agriculture. He sent trade expeditions to Punt, the Red Sea, Lebanon, and the Levant. He carried on a thriving trade with the Mediterranean island of Crete. Senwosret II, son of Amenemhet II, presided over a peaceful, prosperous Egypt. He expanded cultivation in the Faiyum and established friendly (perhaps too friendly) relations with the nomarchs. His habit of giving them tax-free land grants and other rich gifts was one that had caused trouble before. His son, Senwosret III, decided to nip that problem in the bud once and for all.

He created a new government structure that greatly minimized the power of the nomarchs. He closed their courts and revoked their rights and privileges. The new government had three major departments: North, South, and Elephatine/Nubia. Each was overseen by a council of senior officials reporting to a department vizier, who reported directly to the king. During his 18-year reign, Senwosret III showed remarkable skill in managing economic affairs and foreign policy. He led a series of mili- tary campaigns to secure Nubian trade routes, protect the southern borders, secure access to the gold mines, and suppress troublesome Nubians. He cut a bypass canal around the first cataract, improving on a primitive Old Kingdom canal. This allowed speedier, safer trade, and rapid movement of soldiers to trouble spots. Senwosret also built many forts along the southern frontier.

Senwosret’s relations with Asia were mostly peaceful trading partnerships, though he did do some plundering. Much of the plunder and trade wealth that flowed in went to support the temples of Amun-Re at Thebes. The next king, Amenemhet III, enjoyed 46 years of peace, pros- perity, economic growth, and high artistic achievement. He sent almost continual expeditions to the turquoise mines of the Sinai to satisfy Egypt’s endless desire for this prized gemstone. Amenemhet III built two pyramids for himself. One he abandoned. The other, where he was buried, is famous for the large number of features designed to keep tomb robbers out.

There were trap doors, false passages and dead ends. His sarcophagus was carved from a single, massive block of quartzite. After his burial, it was topped with a 45 ton stone slab, and all passages and corridors were filled with rock and rubble. His tomb was looted anyway. Little is known about the last two Middle Kingdom rulers who are named and known, Amenemhet IV and Queen Sobeknefru. Climate change was causing instability in the inundation—the river was always either too high or too low. The resulting disruption led to Egypt’s second extended period of disorder, the Second Intermediate Period. Egypt was about to experience her worst nightmare: rule by foreigners.

Egypt entered a period of internal instability, though not as long or severe as the First Intermediate Period. The Thirteenth Dynasty, ruling from Itj-tawy, included many kings with brief reigns. They maintained some control over both Upper and Lower Egypt, but left few monuments or records. A competing faction (the Fourteenth Dynasty) ruled from a power base in the western Delta. It included an unknown number of obscure kings who came and went quickly. Egyptian control of Nubia collapsed, but many Egyptians stayed to work for local Nubian rulers.  As the 13th and 14th dynasties struggled with one another, a group of foreigners of Semitic origin claimed dominion over Egypt from their eastern Delta power base, Avaris.

The Hyksos soon controlled the eastern Delta and the eastern deserts. The Hyksos had been clever. They did not invade with fanfare and drawn swords. Instead, they immigrated into the eastern Delta and settled in, waiting for the right moment to make their move. Their political influence was largely confined to the Delta. The five (or six) Hyksos kings adopted Egyptian titles, dress, and traditions. They worshiped traditional Egyptian gods and goddesses (they preferred Seth over Osiris), while in- troducing several of their own to the religious mix. They built many temples and sponsored developments in Egyptian arts, crafts, and literature. They sacked Memphis, but did not cause the widespread terror and destruction claimed by later writers.

The Second Intermediate Period

The horror of having their throne seized by foreigners caused the Egyptians to see the Hyksos in the worst possible light. But in many ways, Hyksos rule was the best thing that could have happened to Egypt. It rescued Egypt from political turmoil and cultural decline. The Hyksos brought fresh ideas and new technologies to a land that had become fixed in its outlook.  They introduced Egypt to superior bronze-age technology, already in wide use elsewhere. They introduced new military strategies, tactics, and equipment: the chariot and horse, the composite bow, scale armor (armor with solid, overlapping tabs of metal, rather like metal fish scales), and improved daggers and swords.

The Second Intermediate Period



Without these innovations, it is doubtful Egypt could have become an imperial superpower. The Hyksos also introduced fresh ideas to the arts and everyday life. The vertical weaving loom, stringed musical instruments (lute and lyre), the oboe, the tambourine, the olive and pomegranate trees all came to Egypt with the Hyksos. This 107-year period (1630 to 1539 B.C.E.) spans Dynasties 15 to 17. Egypt had always been strongly inward-looking. Egyptians had not seen the outside world as threatening, or even as very interesting or important. It was a handy shopping mall where they could get things they wanted. Seeing their kingship seized by foreigners finally opened their eyes. The Hyksos takeover profoundly changed the Egyptians’ view of the world.

They realized they needed to do more than just go shopping in the world’s mines and bazaars. They needed a strong, even aggressive, foreign policy to prevent the many up-and-coming nations around the Mediterranean from coming in and taking whatever they wanted  including the throne. For the first time, Egypt established a standing army and a professional military. Because of the Hyksos, Egypt was no longer isolated from the world. As the Hyksos consolidated control over the Delta, a family of Theban princes formed a ruling faction (the Seventeenth Dynasty) at Thebes. They preserved Middle Kingdom culture, and controlled Upper Egypt from Elephantine to Abydos, north of Thebes.

The Hyksos and the Nubians, who had formed an alliance, hemmed in the Thebans for almost 100 years. Finally, simmering tensions exploded into open conflict. The Thebans were determined to drive the hated foreigners off the throne and out of Egypt. King Seqenenre Tao and his son Kamose mounted fierce campaigns against the Hyksos. Seqenenre Tao was soon killed. His mummy shows terrible wounds, probably inflicted in battle. Kamose resumed the fight, retaking the Nubian border forts and leading a raid to the outskirts of Avaris. But he reigned only three years.  His son, Ahmose was also determined to drive the invaders out, but waited for the right moment.

About halfway through his 26 year reign, he led attacks against the Hyksos at their strongholds in Avaris and Memphis. After a hard-fought campaign, Ahmose prevailed. Not content with driving the Hyksos out of Egypt, he chased them all the way back to Palestine and laid siege to their home city, which was in northern Palestine (what the Bible describes as Caanan). The Theban ruling family became the Eighteenth Dynasty, and Ahmose I the first king of the New Kingdom. Egypt’s glorious imperial age was about to begin.

Roman Period

Egypt became a province of the Roman Empire when Mark Antony and Cleopatra VII were defeated at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC. The conquest of Egypt and its incorporation into the Roman empire inaugurated a new fascination with its ancient culture. Obelisks and Egyptian-style architecture and sculpture were installed in Roman fora. The cult of Isis, the Egyptian mother goddess, had an immense impact throughout the empire. Likewise, changes were noticeable in Egyptian artistic and religious forms, as Egyptian gods were increasingly represented in classicizing style.




At this time there was no ruling family living in Egypt, and members of Rome's élite classes were forbidden from entering Egypt without the permission of the emperor, in case they should raise an army against him. Like the Ptolemies before them, the Romans left the religion and culture of Egypt intact.

Egypt was garrisoned with Roman legions and auxiliary units until conditions became stable. All business was transacted according to the principles and procedures of Roman law, and local administration was converted to a liturgic system in which ownership of property brought an obligation of public service. New structures of government formalized the privileges associated with "Greek" background.

As part of the Roman Empire, Egypt was also more open to the world than before. Although it had admitted its share of foreigners in the past, it had always clung to its own culture and to its own ideas. Since the conquest by Alexander the Great, however, it became more and more a Hellenistic state, with a Hellenistic culture, and as a Roman province, it was also more open to the ideology that would finally strike the mortal blow to the millennia old Ancient Egyptian civilisation: Christianity.

When the Roman Empire was divided into two parts and Egypt became a part of the Byzantine Empire, most of its population had converted to Christianity.

The end of the Roman Era and the beginning of what is called the Byzantine Era is actually quite difficult to pin down, but certainly the high empire of Rome was in decline. A rapid succession of emperors destroyed any hope of stability, with the exception of the twenty-year reign of emperor Diocletian, who stabilized the money supply (all of the Roman Empire now used one coinage, even Alexandria, which up until now had minted its own money) and made great efforts to reorganize the bureaucracy.

Obelisk Monument


A 1.7 metre-high steel sculpture by Alan Wilson

It was commissioned by Warings in about 2000

Located at the roundabout at Bracknell Gate and Western Road

Obelisk Monument


What is an obelisk?

Obelisks are one of the most widely  recognized types of public  monuments.   An obelisk is a very tall, tapering,  four-sided stone pillar, which is  capped with a pyramid-like shape at  the top.     The word obelisk comes from an  Ancient Greek term obeliskos, which  means small, pointed pillar. 

 When and where did obelisks  originate?

   Obelisks were a prominent feature of  Ancient Egyptian architecture: they  were placed in pairs at the entrance  f temples, where they were thought  o offer protection.     The earliest obelisk still in its original position is in Heliopolis, in the Nile Delta  in Egypt; it dates from sometime between 1971 and 1926 BC.

What did they symbolize?   

Obelisks symbolized the sun god Ra. More than this, it was thought that an  obelisk was a petrified ray of the sacred sun, and that an aspect of the god Ra  lived within it. 

 Where can obelisks be found today?
 
 There are a great many prominent stone obelisks located in many parts of the  world, dating from all periods of history. Famous examples include an obelisk  at the Place de la Concorde in Paris and the Vatican Obelisk in Rome.  In the UK, the best known example is Cleopatra’s Needle, on the Victoria  Embankment in London. It is one of three Ancient Egyptian obelisks that were  re-located to London, Paris and New York in the nineteenth century.   

 Why is London’s Ancient Greek obelisk known as Cleopatra’s Needle?  

 Long before the obelisk arrived in London, the popular name for obelisks was  Cleopatra’s Needles. A ‘needle’ is a largely outdated term for a variety of  pointed objects (e.g. The Needles, a row of chalk stacks in the sea off the Isle  of Wight), and Cleopatra (of Antony and Cleopatra fame) has been strongly  connected with Egypt in the public imagination. The London obelisk actually  predates Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt (to give this historical figure her full  name) by more than a thousand years. 

  What makes Bracknell’s obelisk different?

   Many of us will have smiled when we first heard about Cleopatra’s Needle in  London, because we now only generally associate needles with sewing. Alan  Wilson, the sculptor, seems to have taken the humour of the name a stage  further. There’s a hole at the top of his obelisk that goes from one side to  another – like a sewing needle.    Also, rather than being made in stone, the Bracknell obelisk is made of steel –  again, like a sewing needle.There’s another aspect to it, too, when you consider that the production of  steel involves heating iron at a temperature of approximately 1,370°C  (2,500°F). This steel obelisk could be seen as a present-day embodiment of a  ray of the sun, in that it’s created with intense heat and glints with the rays of  the sun.    Also, as the artist explains: ‘The hole in the top is mirror polished and meant  to function as a sundial, if the obelisk was correctly aligned... which I don’t  think it is! The obelisk itself casts the shadow and the angled hole would line  up with the sun to form a circle of light on the ground, which should have  appropriate markings to tell the time’. This idea was, however, abandoned  when the original location was shifted from outside Warings to the middle of a  busy roundabout.

2015/10/23

Pectoral with Anubis


The pectoral, a large piece of jewelry, that was worn on the chest, is shaped like the front of a naos, or shrine.

Three holes are on each side through the rear upper edge. On the right, a string of six to eight threads is loosely twisted in each hole; all three strings are knotted together below the holes.

Pectoral with Anubis

On the front of the pectoral, the jackal god Anubis is lying on a naos. The scene is surrounded by a border of geometric figures and topped by a cornice.

On the back, a Djed sign of stability is depicted between two Tyet knots, which are symbols of protection. There is neither border decoration nor other ornamentation on the back.

Ancient Egyptian Dagger

Daggers were used by the ancient Egyptians from predynastic times onwards, though examples dating from the Old Kingdom are exceedingly rare. During the Middle Kingdom and the New Kingdom they were generally made of copper or bronze; gold, apart from its use for purposes of embellishment, was probably reserved for royalty. Queen Ahhotpe, mother of Ahmosis I, the founder of the Eighteenth Dynasty, had, in her funerary equipment, a solid gold dagger and sheath, both of which are now in the Cairo Museum.

Ancient Egyptian Dagger
Ancient Egyptian Dagger

Tutankhamun's mummy was provided with two daggers encased in gold sheaths, one with an iron blade and the other with a blade of hardened gold. It is the latter specimen which is shown here.As an illustration of the goldsmith's artistic ability and technical skill, this dagger, and particularly its sheath, are among the outstanding pieces of the collection. On the top of the pommel are the king's cartouches in applied embossed gold and a wreath of lily-palmettes in cloisonne work. On the underside are two figures of falcons holding in each claw the hieroglyphic symbol for 'eternity' (shen).



Ancient Egyptian Dagger
Ancient Egyptian Dagger

Ancient Egyptian Dagger
Ancient Egyptian Dagger

Ancient Egyptian Dagger
Ancient Egyptian Dagger




The falcon was often represented in Egyptian art holding this symbol and, with wings outstretched, protecting a king. Probably it was intended to serve an amuletic purpose in this instance also. A similar motif appears on the haft of a dagger in the Metropolitan Museum which bears the name of Tuthmosis I and it may have been a characteristic feature of royal daggers at this period. Below the pommel, the haft is decorated with alternate bands of geometric designs in granulated gold work and lily palmette designs in gold cloisonne work of semi-precious stones and glass, a central band of minute red and blue circular disks breaking the regularity of the palmette ornamentation. At the base of the hilt, applied in gold wire, is a band of continuous spirals within a rope pattern border, thus conveying to the eye the suggestion that the haft is bound to the blade.In striking contrast with the ornate haft, the decoration of the blade, which is tinged with red, is simple.

Ancient Egyptian Dagger
Ancient Egyptian Dagger

Ancient Egyptian Dagger
Ancient Egyptian Dagger


At the top, incised on both faces, is a plain horizontal band, which also suggests a tie, over a design consisting of a diamond pattern chain bordered beneath by two horizontal lines, the spaces between the diamonds being filled with dots. Under this frieze is engraved an elegant palmette with poppies surmounting two perpendicular grooves which converge at the base and resemble floral stems.The obverse of the gold sheath is almost entirely covered with a feather pattern decoration in cloisonne work, relieved at the top by a palmette frieze and at the pointed base by a jackal's head. Of far greater interest is the elaborate design on the reverse. First comes a line of inscription reading: 'The Good God, possessor of a strong arm, Nebkheperure, given life'.

A row of continuous spirals follows and then two loops of palmette design, by means of which the sheath was attached to the girdle. The main scene, embossed in high relief, is composed of the following elements: an ibex attacked by a lion, a calf with a hound on its back biting the calf's tail, a leopard and a lion attacking a male ibex from above and below, a hound biting a bull, and lastly a calf in full flight. Interspersed between the animals are stylized plants, and a more elaborate floral device occupies the pointed base.Although there is no reason to doubt that this sheath was made in Egypt, the decoration of the reverse includes artistic features which have a foreign appearance.

The band of continuous spirals, the style of the rosette on the shoulder of the second lion, the summary treatment of the skins of the animals and the floral motif at the base have parallels in the art of northern Syria at this period and they also have Minoan or Mycenaean affinities. Scenes of workshops painted on the walls of private tombs at Thebes sometimes include Asiatic craftsmen at work side by side with the far more numerous Egyptian artisans; they were very probably employed on account of their ability to reproduce artistic styles which were familiar to them but new to the Egyptians. Like so many other importations in the history of Egypt, however, these innovations were quickly absorbed and given the general character of native products.

Inner coffin of Pe-de-amenemope

The wooden coffin is covered with plaster and painted. A necklace of flowers and an image of the sky goddess Nut cover the section of the chest. Below monitoring records and columns representing gods texts with prayers.  

The wig is decorated with a net. The beard is missing. On the underside of the coffin a djed pillar wearing Atef crown is represented. The sides are covered with texts. The interior was painted white. An outer coffin belonging to the same person is also owned by the Museum of Vienna (AOS 222).


Inner coffin of Nes-Khons

The wooden coffin is covered with cartonnage and painted. The chest is covered with an ornate collar and a bead net depicting the sky goddess, Nut. Underneath are registers with gods. The wig is decorated with the vulture cap and bands of flowers.

On the underside of the coffin is a painted representation of the djed-pillar with the sun disc. The inside of the coffin was painted white. The mummy of Nes-Khons (ÄOS 233) and the outer coffin, both of which are kept in the Vienna Museum, also belong to this coffin.

 

Inner coffin of Hetep-Amun

The wooden coffin was covered with cardboard and painted. The chest is covered with a necklace and a net of pearls with the sky goddess, Nut. Below are registers with the gods. The wig is decorated with a net.  

On the underside of the coffin is a painting on a djed pillar flanked by two standards of the west. Inside the coffin was painted white. The inner coffin is associated with a outer coffin, which is also preserved in the Museum of Vienna (AOS 220).


Inner coffin for Ta-baket-en-Khons

The inner coffin belongs to a group consisting of a board mummy, an inner and an outer coffin, in the region of Deir el-Bahari cache (AOS 6264-6266). The wood is covered in linen, smooth exterior with plaster and parts numbers and solar disks are modeled in plaster. The painting is in the style of the 21th dynasty and varnished.  

The fingers of the lady-in-Chon Tabaket are covered in rings. At the far end of the lower part are two great scenes: on the left a tree goddess kneeling libating for Ta-en-Khonsu Baket on the right side of the grave in the desert mountains.



Inner Coffin of Thuya

This inner coffin of Thuya is made of wood, gold, and silver is gilded on the outside and silvered on the inside. The necklace is inlaid with glass and the pectoral, a large piece of jewelry worn on the chest, below the wig is composed of a scarab.

Nut and Nephthys are depicted kneeling on the "Neb" sign of gold with outspread wings. On the right and left sides we find Thoth, Hapi, Anubis, Qebehsenuef, and Imsety who also take part in the protection of the deceased.



Inner Coffin of Thuya
Inner Coffin of Thuya

Sarcophagus of Sennedjem

This rectangular sarcophagus of Sennedjem was placed on removable sledge runners. The sledge was built with holes in the two long sides to ease moving it from the place of mummification to the tomb.
The sarcophagus is decorated with vignettes from the Book of the Dead, Spells 1 and 17. It is bordered with texts arranged in panels. There are also portrayals of those deities who were in charge of protecting the deceased in the afterlife. The interior of this sarcophagus is painted and decorated with the text and vignette of Spell 18 of the Book of the Dead.

The lid is decorated with vignettes from the Book of the Dead and with depictions of members of Sennedjem's family.






Sarcophagus of Tuthmosis the First

The sarcophagus of Tuthmosis the First, like many royal sarcophagi of the early Eighteenth Dynasty, was carved from crystalline sandstone quartzite.

The ancient Egyptians associated this material, which was quarried near the city of the sun, Heliopolis, with the cult of the sun.

The end facing the viewer corresponds to the feet of the mummy. Isis crouches upon the "Neb" sign for gold and holds the Shen ring for protection.


Nepthys appears in a similar pose on the opposite end of the sarcophagus. Each goddess displays her own particular symbol upon her head above the Khat headdress with the frontal uraeus, or royal cobra.

The two long sides show the four sons of Horus in pairs and the god Anubis. The left side is adorned with the two Udjat eyes. The formulas concern the protection and preservation of the body.

This sarcophagus belonged originally to Hatshepsut after she became the ruler. On the occasion of the transfer of her father's mummy, it was inscribed for Tuthmosis the First and transferred to the queen's tomb.






Silver Coffin of King Psusennes the First

The lid of this silver mummy-shaped coffin portrays King Psusennes the First as a mummy with his arms crossed over his chest holding the flail and the scepter.

There is a solid gold uraeus, or royal cobra, on his forehead to protect him. The face is decorated with a band of gold across the forehead; the eyes are inlaid with colored glass paste.

On the chest and abdomen there are representations of three birds with outspread wings, grasping the Shen signs of eternity. The rest of the coffin lid is decorated with long feathers.

Images of Isis and Nephthys are shown on the lid at the level of the feet.


Silver Coffin of King Psusennes the First
Silver Coffin of King Psusennes the First


Sarcophagus of Khonsu

The sarcophagus of Khonsu contained his two mummy-shaped coffins, one inside the other, and a mummy mask covering the head of the mummy.

Tenons on the long side and mortises on the short sides hold the box together. It was mounted on a removable sledge runner to transport it from the place of mummification to the tomb.

The sarcophagus is painted with beautiful scenes of the afterlife. On the two long sides, the texts and scenes are taken from the Book of the Dead. The short sides are decorated with the goddesses who take care of the dead, Sereket and Neith. They were responsible for protecting the head of the deceased. At the other end are Nephthys and Isis, who were responsible for protecting the deceased at the feet.



The long west side is divided into two registers, or sections; the upper one with the ibis-headed Thoth twice on each side. Two of the four Sons of Horus are shown; Imsety is on the right and Duamutef is on the left. In the middle of the upper register is a scene from spell no. 17 of the Book of the Dead.

The lowest register contains 40 vertical columns of text from spell no. 1 of the Book of the Dead. The long east side is divided into two registers; the upper one shows Thoth twice on each side and two sons of Horus, Hapi and Qebehsenuef.

In the middle of the upper register there is another scene of spell no. 17 of the Book of the Dead. The lowest register contains 43 vertical columns of text from spell no. 1 of the Book of the Dead. The lid is decorated with panels showing 12 funerary deities facing each other and Khonsu with his wife Ta-maket facing Kha-bekhnet with his second wife Isis.





Egyptian Geography

Egypt is located along the northern East Africa. The Mediterranean Sea touches the northern tip of snowy mountains. However, due to the presence of the Sahara Desert through it, the climate is hot and dry.

Egyptian Geography

Ancient Egypt was very different on maps of Egypt that we know today. Ancient Egypt was a great kingdom. It includes many natural obstacles such as the desert on either side of the Nile and the mountains on its southern borders.These characteristics ensured that ancient Egypt was effectively cut off from its neighboring kingdoms and provinces. This has also led to a unique fusion and realization of cultures and traditions that are purely Egyptian.


Egyptian Geography

Egyptian Geography





Four regions of Egypt:


Upper and Lower Egypt


Upper and Lower Egypt present a very contradictory as Upper Egypt is the southern part of the earth and Lower Egypt is the northern part. Upper Egypt consists of a tiny river valley, about 12 miles wide, with cliffs on each side. Lower Egypt consists of the delta north of Cairo. It was the most fertile land from silt of the Nile River were deposited here.





Red and Black Earth


Land red and black, also known as Kemet DESRET and represents the rich black soil of the Nile and the latter, the desert and the parched land.In the west, the desert was home to a few oases, however, is the desert was uninhabited except for minors and careers. These mines were mostly precious stones. The ancient Egyptians were well aware of their dependence on the Nile and the desert cliffs outside their borders.The first cataract was originally south of Upper Egypt, which means that the countries of the South. It consisted of raw water and rapids and waterfalls 800 miles from where the Nile joins the Mediterranean Sea.


Sudan and Ethiopia are considered ancient coins Ancient Egyptian Nubia and Kush. This was proven by the discovery of tombs pyramids in Sudan, although it has not been a part of ancient Egypt, they certainly had trade relations and cultural exchanges.The Nile was divided into the White Nile and the Blue Nile. White Nile has found its origin in Lake Victoria, while the Blue Nile had its origin at Lake Tana is Ethiopia. It is the focal point in 

Sudan.

Length of the river is four thousand miles, the longest river in the world. His lotus has inspired many artists. The Nile and its floods were a source of income for the Egyptians and their seasons were based on the rise and fall of the Nile. Egypt is also called the gift of the Nile because without the river, the land is barren desert.


Ancient Egyptian Projects

Egypt is one of the greatest civilizations of the past. There are many activities for children related to ancient Egypt. With such a huge amount of time, it is easy to find dozens of projects fun and educational for children to go to school.

Build a pyramid is a fun activity for children. Children may have a project in ancient Egypt to construct pyramids matches, sugar, sand, etc. Also children can be given ancient craft project to build a mask of Egyptian pharaoh mummies and paper Egypt on bandages.



There are also some games based on ancient Egyptian art. Mehen, the snake game was played in ancient Egypt before 3000 BC. The idea of ​​the game is to move your pieces around the six snake to his head and bring him safely back to the tail of the lion eats before your opponent. Students can receive a project to write their names using hieroglyphs. Egyptians wrote their names in cartouches, oval containing all characters long. You can write in hieroglyphics cartridge from left to right or right to left, but we must ensure that the animal symbols facing the direction of departure.


Ancient Egyptian paintings were represented on the walls of tombs and monuments. Painters usually worked as teams with a master craftsman oversees the work of several apprentices. Children can have projects to one of these paintings paintings or pull the mummy, pharaoh, jars, ancient Egyptian gods, etc. Children may also be given to projects aimed at understanding the Egyptian symbols. For example beetle that protects from evil. It is a symbol of eternal life. He is often depicted in pushing up the sun in the sky. The eye of Horus is also known as Horus or oudjat.


The magic of the eye of Horus symbolizes protection and wisdom. The eye also symbolizes our ability to see with clarity and sincerity. The Eye of Horus was believed to have healing powers and protection, and it was used as a protective amulet. Ancient Egypt was known for its magnificent beauty, exotic perfumes, beautiful clothes, hairstyles and flamboyant perennials. Children may have plans to make a necklace or anklet with beads.  


There are also ancient Egyptian puzzles for children that are not only fun but also educational. Some of these puzzles are issues where kings and queens were buried, the name of the cat goddess, a terms of how the Egyptians preserved the body.

Ancient Egyptian Prayer

The role of priests in the temples was not pastoral and contact was minimal believers. They were appointed from the classes of scribes and many offices became hereditary, while the role of lay priests recruited from the general population declined and their importance was reduced. Control over the temples ceased to be in the hands of the community. Although much is known about the official religion and rituals, religious customs of the Egyptian people are not as well documented. They seem to have worshiped gods in their homes, perhaps by placing small statuettes offerings before God.

 In the rooms before the houses of Deir el Medina workers have been raised platforms that may have served altars.In the rooms before the houses of Deir el Medina workers have been raised platforms that may have served altars.In the rooms before the houses of Deir el Medina workers have been raised platforms that may have served altars.In the rooms before the houses of Deir el Medina workers have been raised platforms that may have served altars.Bes and Taweret were two major domestic gods.

 Ancient Egyptian Prayer



New Kingdoms, ordinary individuals were permitted to file votive offerings in areas outside of the temples, but the main occasions during which they could approach the gods were public holidays. During these periods, ordinary people could watch the procession of a deity, although it is most often remote and in general the real image of God is not visible to them.
Egyptians asked the Nile god and thanked him for all the blessings He gives to the people, especially during the festival of the flood, or a flood. There were also prayers for the afterlife. Rich Egyptians were buried with larger quantities of luxury items, but all burials, regardless of social status, included goods of the deceased.



From the New Kingdom, books of the dead were included in the tomb, with statues believed to be Shabti perform manual labor for them in the afterlife Rituals in which the deceased was magically re-burials accompanied animation. After burial, living relatives were expected to bring food from time to time to the tomb and recite prayers on behalf of the deceased. There was a guide known as the Book of the Dead, which contained spells and instructions to ensure safe passage through the dangers of hell. Funeral prayers and spells were chanted to the Egyptian gods and a roll of papyrus Book of the Dead was buried with the Egyptians.



The ancient Egyptians also seem to have recognized that stress may contribute to the disease. They established sanitariums where people experience a "dream therapy" and treatments with "healing waters." A few gods were considered as dangerous as protection against them was deemed necessary by prudence. One of them was Nefertoum, ofSekhmet son, whose amulets against evil influences were worn. The attitude towards some of the gods was ambivalent and has changed over time.