2015/10/21

Ancient Egypt irrigation

 Since prehistoric times, agriculture in Egypt depended on the waters of the River Nile and its regular annual flood Egyptian lands, by providing water and silt. Thus, the land was irrigated on a regular basis a year called "beds" irrigation, which is a sharing system of agricultural land to beds by mud barriers. The water flows into the beds through the channels. Each channel carries the water to about eight beds, one after the other. In this way, the land near the river banks have a greater share of water that lands farther.  

Finally, the Egyptians advanced to artificial irrigation. It aims to keep extra water left after the flood in the beds near the banks of the river to use it to water the beds away, where flood waters can not reach. This was accomplished by digging a series of canals and bridges. Artificial irrigation was considered successful cooperation required the will of the Egyptian people and government and persistence.
Ancient Egypt irrigation
Ancient Egypt irrigation
 
Since the stabilization of the central government, Egyptians annually recorded the water level of the Nile and recorded in official records. The oldest levels record flood is the Palermo Stone from the fifth dynasty, to which 63 Nile water levels were recorded. This measure water levels continued to be used and developed until 715 AD when the Arabs built the Nilometer, or Roda measure, the name of the island, it was used. This measure was in use until the early twentieth century. Monitoring the water level of the Nile had a great effect on the estimate of taxes and the amount of land could be irrigated in the year. After each flood, the regions are responsible for channel management, while measuring the earth and the water level recording were carried out at national level.

In the Ptolemaic period, Greek temple records presented each region as an economic unit, and sent on behalf of the canal which irrigates the region, region growing, which is located on the banks of the river and is directly irrigated with its water, and land on the border of the region that could be salvaged. The irrigation system has helped to push a bed of winter crops, while the summer, the land can be cultivated mountain areas were far from the flood. Thus, when the Egyptians invented tools for raising water, such as chadouf, they managed to get two crops a year, which was considered a great advance in the field of irrigation. The chadouf was invented in the Amarna period and is a simple tool that needs two to four men to operate.  


The shadoof consists of a long handle weighted suspended at one end and a bucket at the other end. It can lift about 100 cubic meters (100,000 liters) in 12 hours, which is enough to irrigate a little over a third of an acre.In the Ptolemaic era, the paddle wheel was invented to lift the water. This is a huge wheel with pots set around its circumference. The waterwheel plunges into the water then turns to lift four to six cubic meters of water. The waterwheel can lift 285 cubic meters (285,000 liters) of water in 12 hours.

 Ancient Egypt irrigation

Styles ancient irrigation depended strongly on the physical geography and geology of the region, and engineering skills available. Four different styles of irrigation were developed very early in the history of farming. All irrigation systems depend on water intake from natural sources and man-made canals to divert or ponds where it is applied to crops.
The Nile valley is extremely fertile and without rain. Herodotus wrote over 2000 years, "Egypt is ... the gift of the river. "Egypt depends on the Nile in a way no other nation. 97% of Egyptians live on 2.5% of its surface. The prosperity of the Nile Valley civilizations has depended throughout recorded history on the efficiency with which the central government organized the best use of river water. 


crops could be stored, after years of plenty, for example, and irrigation could be both constructed and maintained. The Nile receives its water from the tropical highlands of Africa. The river receives no tributary at all for the last 1500 km of its course through the Sahara desert to the Mediterranean. In Egypt, far from its sources of water, the Nile did not flood sudden wave crests. The annual flooding begins in June as snowmelt and summer rain runoff on the river. It rises gently to its peak in late September and early October, then slowly disappears at the end of December. 

 The Nile river is one of the most predictable in the world, and its average "flood" period of more than one hundred days, rather than being very short-lived as those of other rivers. At first, Egyptian agriculture along the Nile was founded on the growth of winter crops, after the annual floods decreased. Egyptian Irrigation was based on several facts. There was only one water source (river) which was too powerful to control. Irrigation works had to be passive in construction, relatively high and built along the river bank so that they covered only the peak of the flood. The river valley is flat, but narrow and steep, never more than 25 km wide until it reaches the delta below Cairo. Irrigation systems could not carry water over long distances away from the river.

The ancient Egyptians built large flat-bottomed basins for crops along the banks of the river, and simple locks that diverted water in the peak of the flood. It was easy in terms of engineering, if it is not at work, arrange for proper water flow through several basins in the estate, controlled by single doors. The water was left standing in the fields of 40 to 60 days, then was evacuated crop at the right time in the growth cycle, downstream in the river. There was always plenty of water, so salt ever built in the ground and into drains and ditches was strong enough to prevent siltation. (Limon, who settled in the basins has been beneficial in two ways: it made the floors of basins uniformly flat, and he brought a lot of nutrients with floods every year.) Ditches and canals were short, and the irrigation system was very typical local.


The design of the irrigation system depended critically on knowing in advance the height of the annual flood, and the Egyptians developed a system of "nilometers" at different points along the valley. Prompt and early warning of the height of the flood as it rolled downstream from the south made a big difference to the size of the harvest. Herodotus wrote that the Egyptians "get their crops with less work than anyone in the world."Early irrigation was rather primitive and local, and the food was not stored efficiently, so that the first civilizations were vulnerable to long-term fluctuation in the Nile floods.


 There was no attempt to significant water storage: since all the water from the Nile, all storage would have meant damming the river, which was well beyond the capacity of the ancient Egyptians. Therefore, their irrigation system was passive, and early Egyptian civilization depended largely on a winter crop year. After it was harvested in spring, the land lay fallow until the next flood. Only in a few places where the soil was very wet there any chance of a second crop, and, of these areas were Abydos, Memphis and Thebes, the great centers of ancient Egyptian civilization. They lay along the river upstream of the delta.

The Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, and the New Kingdom were periods of Egyptian history when a strong central government at the time of booming prosperity, followed by periods of economic stagnation and population , often accompanied by declining social, military, and artistic. It is not clear whether a strong central government has resulted in efficient irrigation and good agricultural production, or if a strong central government broke down after climate change has led to unstable agricultural production.


Ancient Egypt Technology

The ancient Egyptians do not seem very advanced compared to civilization in the 21st century, but you must understand that we are in a time much later than they were. We had a lot more time to develop this measure in computers, televisions, video games, and medical knowledge. They had a little time to develop a water clock, sundial, the pyramids and the tools to build, and system time.

Ancient Egypt Technology
Ancient Egypt Technology


Tools
The ancient Egyptians changed from copper tools to bronze tools because bronze tools have been preferable to work with. In 200 BC, they changed from bronze tools to iron tools. With these tools, the Egyptians built great monuments and palaces, but it took much longer it would take a civilization today because we have better tools that. They may not have been very high tech, but they knew what they were doing. They are those who built the Great Pyramids of Giza, and see what, today, they are still standing.Ancient Egyptian scientists have used their knowledge to think about how to do something great and unique. Then they thought about how to build useful things inside buildings such as levers, ramps and rollers that moved heavy boxes.

Construction of a monuments
Have you ever seen a very old building? He is torn, right? Ancient Egyptian pyramids are
 
about 4,000 years and only a few blocks chipped. Well, just compare our structures with those built in ancient Egypt. Big difference, huh?The ancient Egyptians built their pyramids blocks together so tight that even today, more than 4000 years after they were built, you can not stick a knife between the two blocs. Blocks of the pyramids are so big and heavy as hurricanes or tornadoes can not even destroy them.

Calendars
The ancient Egyptian calendar is a bit different from ours today. There were ten days in a week, three weeks to a month, four months in a season, three seasons in a year, and five days. That adds up to a year of 365 days. The Egyptians were the first to come to the 365-day year.

Clocks
Clocks Egyptians were very different from ours as well. There were two types of clocks in ancient Egypt, a clock and a sundial water. A water clock seems very complicated, but it's really not. This is a position with a small pot on top of the cage and a pot at the bottom of the cage. The pot at the top of the forum was a hole in the side. This pot was then filled with water and the water flows over the pot top and bottom of the pan. When the water was at some level, it was a whole. The only drawback of the water clock is that you had to keep filling.

Ancient Egypt Technology
Ancient Egypt Technology

The sundial was essentially a circle with numbers written around it with a stick in the middle. When the shadow of the stick fell to a number, it was then.A great advantage of the clock was no water was the sundial can not use the sundial and overnight water clock you could.


Ancient Egyptian Animals

Perhaps, one of the few ancient communities who regarded animals as sacred was the Egyptian community. It is interesting to study about the animals of Ancient Egypt.

Cats were worshipped by the people. Bastet was the cat goddess. Cat mummies are found out in large numbers. Cats were popular companions of the people. A bull represented power, aggression and masculinity. A cow's quiet demeanour suggested a gentle aspect of feminine beauty. Her gift of milk was considered important. 

Ancient Egyptian Animals
Ancient Egyptian Animals


The lion was connected with the rising and the setting of the sun, and so were thought to be guardians of the horizon and were linked to solar deities. In Ancient Egypt, the fish had both sacred and scorned species. Some were sacred in some places and not allowed to be eaten, whereas in other places, anyone could eat the fish. Some of the fish in Egypt included the carp, perch and catfish.

Baboon was the dog-headed god .Cobra was considered sacred and Buta was the cobra goddess. Crocodile was one of the fearful creatures, who, it was believed would eat up the evil doers. The frog goddess Heqet was often shown as a frog-headed woman or as a frog. Anubis was the jackal-headed god. The Ancient Egyptians domesticated different types of animals - sheep, cattle, goats, pigs, geese and later horses.

Cattle were thought to be sacred and beef was often used for offerings to the gods or goddesses. Although cattle were raised, beef was a luxury item because much of the meat of the cattle was used for religious ceremonies and offerings.  Sheep and goats were considered by the Egyptians to be 'small cattle', and they were kept for their meat, milk, wool and hide. Donkeys were used for transportation of goods.

 Animals were one of the most important things about farming. Animals helped ancient Egyptians with jobs like trampling in the seeds, pulling the plough, eating unwanted grain or wheat and providing them with food and drink. But having these animals may have caused misfortune like if a donkey nibbled on someone else's crops the farmer could threaten to take its owner to court.

Also if animals were sick the Egyptians had to do all the work that they did. If animals were not marked they may have been stolen. Some of the farm animals were goats, pigs, ducks, cows, and geese. Each of the Egyptians towns had their own sacred animal. The ancient Egyptians had numerous different types of pets - monkeys, ducks, geese, pigeons, hoopoes, falcons, cats, dogs and even ferrets.

Ancient Egyptian Astronomy

Astronomical orientations were important to the people of ancient Egypt who were regular sky observers. Monuments were built to have a certain astronomical orientation. During the Ptolemaic period, scientists reached solid conclusions on the earth's rotation around the sun and the approximate geo sphere of the planet. At 1100 BC, Amenhotep created a catalogue of the universe in which only five constellations are recognized.

Ancient Egyptian Astronomy


We know that Egyptians had a polytheistic religion. It is interesting to note that certain gods were seen in the constellations, and others were represented by actual astronomical bodies. The constellation Orion, for instance, represented Osiris, who was the god of death, rebirth, and the afterlife.

The Milky Way represented the sky goddess Nut giving birth to the sun god Ra. The stars in Egyptian mythology were represented by the goddess of writing, Seshat, while the Moon was either Thoth, the god of wisdom and writing, or Khons, a child moon god.

Flooding of river Nile was predicted by the priests who realised that flooding always occurred at the summer solstice which was also when the bright star Sirius rose before the Sun. Therefore, the three seasons; the flooding season, the growing season and the harvesting season were based on astronomy. These seasons were divided into four lunar months.

Ancient Egyptian Astronomy
Ancient Egyptian Astronomy

Astronomers later found many connections between the Orion constellation and the way ancient Egyptians built the Pyramids. For example, Orion's "belt" of three stars in the middle matches the arrangement of the three Pyramids on the Giza Strip .
Construction was based in relation to stars, the stars, zodiac, and constellations. Pyramids are aligned very accurately, the eastern and western sides run almost due north and the southern and northern sides run almost due west.

The pyramids were probably originally aligned by finding north or south, and then using the midpoint as east or west. This is because it is possible to find north and south by watching stars rise and set. They were also in accordance with the star B Scorpii's rising direction. The temple of Amun-Re at Karnak was aligned on the rising of the midwinter sun.

Astronomy played a considerable part in religious matters for fixing the dates of festivals and determining the hours of the night. The titles of several temple books are preserved recording the movements and phases of the sun, moon and stars.


Ancient Egyptian Boats

Ancient Egyptians pioneered the development of river craft and various types of boats and ships were built. Nile provided an excellent means of transport and every corner of the city could be reached by boats. Need for an efficient navy was recognised by pharaohs like Senefru who had a fleet of 40 ships.

Ships and Boats were built for fishing, trade, transportation, processions and travel. Agricultural produce, troops, cattle, stone and funeral processions were all carried on the Nile and its canals. Animals and goods were transported. For Egyptians, both building and rowing a boat were not easy jobs. The wood was cut with a chisel.

Ancient Egyptian Boats
Ancient Egyptian Boats

Mainly three types of boats for different purposes were made in ancient Egypt. Simple reed rafts were used mostly for hunting in marshes. Eventually stronger wooden boats were used for lengthy ocean excursions as well as to transport boulder blocks weighing many tons.

The third type of boat was the papyri form boat. Papyrus boats were useful for daily activities like hunting or religious ceremonies. These boats were made of bundles of bound papyrus reeds, and were lashed together into a long thin hull form in the style of a slight crescent.

Sailboats were also in use which had one square sail. The elegant Funeral boats were used to carry the dead across Nile river. They were buried along with the dead. When this became expensive, models of boats were buried. Military ships gradually evolved. Model boats for the symbolic journey of the sun god were also found.

The earliest record of a ship under sail is depicted on an Egyptian pot dating back to 3200BC. These Egyptian boats were made of either native woods or conifers from Lebanon. Cedar was important as a boat building material. Boats were often named.

The world's oldest boat is found in the pyramid of King Khufu. It is a good example of papyri form boat. The pieces were found unassembled. Some believe it was for the king to use in his afterlife.

The Abydos boats were discovered in 2000. They are a great white, 'ghostly' fleet of 14 boats. They were about 25 metres long, two to three metres wide and about sixty centimetres deep, seating 30 rowers. The pharaohs prided themselves on their pleasure boats with multiple decks containing cabins, kitchens, dining rooms and lounges.

Ancient Egyptian Amulets

Influence of magic is a typical feature of any society that is guided and dominated by religious beliefs. Egyptians believed in the healing and protective layer of the amulet. Amulets were worn by the children and adults alike.

In order to give an amulet its power, it had to be made and dedicated in strict accordance with the instructions written in the Book of the Dead. Only then, would the appropriate god's spirit live within and energize the amulet. There were many amulets such as the amulet of the eye of Horus, amulet of Ankh, The Tyet amulet, the Scarab amulet etc.

Ancient Egyptian Amulets
Ancient Egyptian Amulets



The word "amulet" is derived from an Arabic root meaning 'to bear'or 'to carry'. The people believed that both good and evil forces existed. Poisonous animals like snakes, natural disasters like floods, illness, bad luck - all these were the hidden forces.

Amulets offered protection of the living or the dead body, against these evil forces. The gemstone of which the amulet is made of, the images on the amulet, the shapes of the amulet; all of these were significant.

Ancient Egyptian Amulets
Ancient Egyptian Amulets
Ancient Egyptian Amulets
Ancient Egyptian Amulets


The traditional lengthy priestly rituals on amulets were abandoned by Rekh-Khetu. The next modification in amulet tradition was the declaration that a drawing of an amulet or any sacred symbol contained the identical power as the actual amulet. Some amulets were inscribed with magical formula.

The Eye of Horus consisted of an image of an eye and eyebrow, along with a stylized beard, the symbol of divine kingship. The amulet dedicated to the three Egyptian gods of Osiris, Isis and Horus was the Djet. The Djet was used to cure or protect the wearer against injury to the back in general and to protect the spine.

The Knot of Isis was a stylized representation of the genitals of Isis and was always made of red stone. Almost every woman carried this amulet in order to be granted all of Isis's wisdom and knowledge.

An amulet called Nefer which was made of gold, promised to bring the deceased boundless happiness in the afterlife. The scarab amulet was also important. scarab or beetle itself possesses remarkable powers, and if a figure of the scarab be made, and the proper words of power be written upon it, not only protection of the dead physical heart, but also new life and existence will be given to him to whose body it is attached.

Egyptian amulets functioned in a number of ways. Symbols and deities generally conferred the powers they represent. Small models that represent known objects, such as headrests or arms and legs, served to make sure those items were available to the individual or that a specific need could be addressed.

Amulet magic was so important to the protection of the deceased that either duplicate amulets or amulets that served the same purpose were sometimes included in burials so that if the primary amulet didn't work properly, the secondary amulet would take over.


Ancient Egypt Entertainment

 Ancient Egyptian royalty and people have played a wide variety of games and sports. They also watched the dancers and listened to singers and musicians. Children's toys and dolls in the form of humans, animals and birds.

The Egyptian Museum has some of the most interesting models of household items, games, toys, and drawings. These models, mainly in miniature, providing a clear picture of daily life and entertainment in ancient Egypt over 3000 years.


Ancient Egypt Entertainment
Ancient Egypt Entertainment


The ancient Egyptians enjoyed games of chance and strategy in which items have been moved on specially designed panels. A game involving six lions and six sets of balls, played the Predynastic to early Old Kingdom, was called "mehen." Another game, called the dogs and jackals, which seems to be a race between a team of five jackals and dogs around five a palm tree. Little is known about the rules for these games.

The most popular game was Senet. A precursor of checkers, Senet was played on a board with three rows of ten squares. The objective was to move the pieces around a track that winds its arrival. Specially marked squares indicated good or bad fortune. Dice was played in the Roman and Byzantine periods to the Islamic period.

 Scenes from tombs and temples in all periods show musicians and dancers. Musical performances were important to the worship of gods and kings and the Egyptians used a variety of instruments, including drums, flutes, harps, tambourines and trumpets. Dance was considered an honorable career for a woman and it will probably a high degree of grace and athleticism to perform acrobatic moves represented in scenes of temples. 

 Dance was performed at funerals, parties, banquets and other events of ancient Egyptian life. The song was another popular form of entertainment and a way of honoring the gods, as indicated by the title "singer of Amun," held by women of the elite class. Few words written in old songs Egyptian been found, with the exception of certain texts of love songs from the Ramesside period found in Deir el-Medina.

Ancient Egyptian royalty and high officials enjoyed attending sporting events. Boxing, wrestling, fencing with sticks were favorite events. The ancient Egyptians also considered a form of early Olympics featuring field hockey, handball, gymnastics, weightlifting, equestrian events, swimming, rowing, archery, spear throwing, running long distance, high jump, and tug of war. Children played less organized games involving balancing, wrestling and running and ball games with balls made of papyrus.


 The children had lots of toys to play with, most often made to look like animals and people. After the Greco-Roman conquest, theater became a popular form of entertainment. Theater were discovered on papyrus scrap used to make blankets mummy cartonnage. Sports competitions were still important; Ptolemy the Second established a festival called the Ptolemaieia held every four years and was intended to compete with the Olympics.

Ancient Egypt Jobs

What types of jobs were available to ancient Egyptians? It was not only the construction for the construction of the pyramids and monuments. The golden age of ancient Egypt lasted over 3000 years during which the Egyptians lived in a well-ordered society that was administered by persons employed on the country's government, law enforcement, judges and the courts.  
 
All classes of society paid taxes which in turn paid to the government and army - the oldest Egyptian jobs. The jobs held by former Egyptian scribes revolved around work on the government of Egypt, they were servants of ancient Egypt! Egyptian religion also held different types of people who undertake jobs related to religion and the execution of the temples.
 
 For complete information on specific occupations and jobs in Ancient Egypt click the following link to the ancient Egyptians. The Pyramid of Power:The pyramid of ancient Egypt power provides an overview of jobs in ancient Egypt and the status that has been associated with them.
 
 These jobs could be divided into state employment and protection and the national government, private employment and employment related to work on estates, jobs related to religion and temples, doctors, artists , craftsmen and workers last. The PharaohThe Great Royal WifeMembers of the immediate family royalVizierNoblesArmy officersOfficials of the CourtThe priests and priestesses, DoctorsThe scribes and teachersArtistsArtisansFoot SoldiersFishermen and farmersWorkers, builders Tomb



The government of Egypt:
The government of ancient Egypt need a variety of jobs. The vizier was a court officer and the largest equivalent to a prime minister. Many of these jobs were made to the court, other government jobs were held throughout the country. The different types of jobs assigned to judicial officers and government employees, including:
Managing the building and construction of  the royal monuments including labor and resources

    Architects and Engineers

    Jobs relating to legal issues - All important legal issues were documented including wills, trials and property deeds

    Jobs relating to controlling civil order - similar to the police of today

    Jobs relating to managing the food supply and distribution

    Tax Collectors and jobs relating to conducting a regular census of the population in order to collect taxes

    Managing important industries - Fishing, Farming etc

    Recording rainfall and water levels of the Nile which indicated the possibility of floods or famine

Scribes:
Ancient Egypt Jobs
Ancient Egypt Jobs

Many scribes held positions of government across the country for documentation of legal issues. Scribes were also responsible for education, job-related. There was also a lot of money to be made by the scribes who created documents, which were buried with the Egyptians, which included a selection of spells from the Book of the Dead. Ancient Egyptian scribe

The priests or priestesses and astrologers:

Ancient Egypt Jobs
The priests and priestesses were busy temples and conducted religious ceremonies. Astrologers also held important positions related to religious practices and the location and position of the temples and tombs.


The officials:


There were jobs for employees who have undertaken important jobs in the management of rich households and palaces such as cooks, even if the slaves were also used for this purpose.

 
Engineers and architects:
The vast building programs in ancient Egypt need jobs for engineers and architects.


Builders and artists:
The vast building programs in ancient Egypt need jobs for workers and builders. Contrary to popular opinion ordinary Egyptians undertook these roles on conscription, although the slaves were also used for this purpose. The condition of the working class was generally hard. The kings had the right to use as many of their subjects as they pleased in forced labor. There were craftsmen who were also employed for complicated stone cutting and creating sculptures. Artists have been used for houses decorated with rich and Egyptians to decorate the tombs and temples.


Soldiers:

Ancient Egypt Jobs
The commands of the army was an opportunity for ordinary people to rise in society. The most common jobs were tied to the infantry, but tanks were a force respected. Former Egyptian soldier


 
The Artists:

Ancient Egypt Jobs

There was the show who were the dancers and acrobats who entertained the rich Egyptians. Some dancers also had jobs related to dance during religious festivals.


Workers, fishermen and farmers:

 
There were different types of manual labor, outside manufacturers, who had jobs on the farms of the nobility, to cultivate the land or livestock. There were also boatmen, fishermen and Fowlers. There were jobs for weavers, metal workers, potters, carpenters, upholsterers, tailors, shoemakers, glass blowers, boat builders, barbers and embalmers.


Ancient Egyptian Achievements

The ancient Egyptians invented a calendar, which causes a form of writing called hieroglyphics, and developed the papyrus (paper made from the papyrus plant). Foremost among their achievements, however, were the pyramids (tombs of the kings) of Giza, including the Great Sphinx, which have been designated as one of the Seven Wonders of the World.
 Other impressive structures were two Egyptian temples built by King Ramses II (c. 1250 BC-?) At Abu Simbel, the ruins and tombs at Abydos, and a complex of shrines and temples of Karnak (part of the site of the former Thebes).   One of the oldest civilizations in the world, Egypt from 5000 to 3000 BC along the Nile, which flows into the Mediterranean Sea. Civilizations lasted until 332 BC

Ancient Egyptian Achievements
Ancient Egyptian Achievements

The ancient Egyptians made many different types of achievements in a variety of topics. They had their own written language, and they had a number system. On all their most important achievements for us would probably be the obelisks. They help us understand the daily life of ancient Egyptians. Obelisks were monuments of the pharaohs do for themselves so that, after death, then they must be stored. The obelisks were extremely high, at least 70 feet high. They were not made only for pharaohs, however, the others were too, they just were not as elaborate or ornate than the pharaohs. On the obelisks were stories about what the person / Pharaoh had done, as the great battles that helped win pharaoh. These types of significant achievements and inventions like the obelisks really helped to go far in learning about ancient achievements.



Ancient Egyptian Achievements
Ancient Egyptian Achievements


Ancient Egyptian Achievements
Ancient Egyptian Achievements

Ancient Egyptian Achievements
Ancient Egyptian Achievements



    
The Egyptians made many inventions that were important for us to learn how they lived and what they did. Their writing system was very important to us when we learned. This is called hieroglyphics, he started over 5000 years, and was used by the institution pictures.When, we learned, he helped us to better study them because they speak to around former writings how they lived. Another important invention is that they have mummification. It was important for us because their process of mummification of bodies retained long enough to where we found them and we could study them.


 The mummification process was important for them because they believed that after your death, you went to the afterlife. However they believed the only way you could go in life after you had to be mummified. They also put people into gold, food, clothing and other necessities to the grave with them so they can carry it on in the afterlife with them. Some of the topics they have made achievements were medicine, astronomy and mathematics. Medicine is a very important achievement, because they had they had better ways to treat people.

 In 2700 AD the world loosened earlier known was preformed by Imhotep in Egypt. In 1700, they had the ECB early diagnostic medicine in Egypt. In their astronomical achievements they have realized when the flood occurred and they planned for it. This is very important, agriculture-wise, because by knowing when the floods came, they knew when to grow crops. After the flood, the soil becomes very fertile and easy to plow. They also divided the year into 12 months, 30 days of each month and five days of celebration. They also made a solar calendar. They also had some mathematical achievements and these achievements are important and probably increased their education. 

Ancient Egyptian Achievements
Ancient Egyptian Achievements

Ancient Egyptian Achievements
Ancient Egyptian Achievements
In 2700 BC, they had the first fully developed base 10 numeration. Then in 1300 BC, they had about two algebraic equations.They had very nice building and artistic achievements as well. They made gigantic pyramids. The first was not as advanced or large they made the pyramids with steps on first, then they argued over the pyramids as the Great Pyramid of Giza. The pyramids were used as tombs for the dead.

 There were many rooms in the tomb that housed the coffins of mummies, pottery luxury goods, gold, food and others. They put things like food and gold in the graves because they thought the deceased would be placed at the afterlife. Their artistic achievements have helped us a lot in learning about them.  


Egyptian Achievements Video


They painted pictures on the walls of tombs of what they did in their daily life such as agriculture. Over time, they made more elaborate things like jewelry and pottery. They made their statues of pharaohs and gods and goddesses that they believe in. All these things that the Egyptians did, whether the language or art, it really helped us learn more about how they lived , what they did, and they were a great civilization.



Ancient Egyptian Communication

Mainly, the ancient Egyptians communicated in writing and hieroglyphics heratic. Like most people could not learn both languages​​, after all, the hieroglyphs are more than 700 characters, to select the people called scribes, learned the language of ancient Egypt to write for other people. People write things like the harvest of the month, or what was done during the week. People also communicated through games and drama, to express their feelings and thoughts to viewers by acting on their thoughts

Ancient Egyptian Communication
Ancient Egyptian Communication


In these games, only men were actors in the game, because women do not have many rights. People also naturally talk to each other to see the events of the day and what was happening. They also speak to communicate with their gods to pray and thank them and ask for help with problems in their daily lives. The ancient Egyptians would also communicate through drawings, photos, and snapshots of their lives, and the only thing important is happening. They also drew to express their prophecies and predictions for the end of the world

Ancient Egyptian Communication
Ancient Egyptian Communication

Another way the Egyptians were able to communicate through their art. They show pictures of their ships on the gods and demigods (children of the gods) who do heroic acts to save the world. To communicate their rank, people wore clothes more expensive, and their houses were larger and fully furnished with richly carved furniture and impressive works of art. Women also wore gold and lapis lazuli jewelry.