2015/10/23

Pectoral with Anubis


The pectoral, a large piece of jewelry, that was worn on the chest, is shaped like the front of a naos, or shrine.

Three holes are on each side through the rear upper edge. On the right, a string of six to eight threads is loosely twisted in each hole; all three strings are knotted together below the holes.

Pectoral with Anubis

On the front of the pectoral, the jackal god Anubis is lying on a naos. The scene is surrounded by a border of geometric figures and topped by a cornice.

On the back, a Djed sign of stability is depicted between two Tyet knots, which are symbols of protection. There is neither border decoration nor other ornamentation on the back.

Ancient Egyptian Dagger

Daggers were used by the ancient Egyptians from predynastic times onwards, though examples dating from the Old Kingdom are exceedingly rare. During the Middle Kingdom and the New Kingdom they were generally made of copper or bronze; gold, apart from its use for purposes of embellishment, was probably reserved for royalty. Queen Ahhotpe, mother of Ahmosis I, the founder of the Eighteenth Dynasty, had, in her funerary equipment, a solid gold dagger and sheath, both of which are now in the Cairo Museum.

Ancient Egyptian Dagger
Ancient Egyptian Dagger

Tutankhamun's mummy was provided with two daggers encased in gold sheaths, one with an iron blade and the other with a blade of hardened gold. It is the latter specimen which is shown here.As an illustration of the goldsmith's artistic ability and technical skill, this dagger, and particularly its sheath, are among the outstanding pieces of the collection. On the top of the pommel are the king's cartouches in applied embossed gold and a wreath of lily-palmettes in cloisonne work. On the underside are two figures of falcons holding in each claw the hieroglyphic symbol for 'eternity' (shen).



Ancient Egyptian Dagger
Ancient Egyptian Dagger

Ancient Egyptian Dagger
Ancient Egyptian Dagger

Ancient Egyptian Dagger
Ancient Egyptian Dagger




The falcon was often represented in Egyptian art holding this symbol and, with wings outstretched, protecting a king. Probably it was intended to serve an amuletic purpose in this instance also. A similar motif appears on the haft of a dagger in the Metropolitan Museum which bears the name of Tuthmosis I and it may have been a characteristic feature of royal daggers at this period. Below the pommel, the haft is decorated with alternate bands of geometric designs in granulated gold work and lily palmette designs in gold cloisonne work of semi-precious stones and glass, a central band of minute red and blue circular disks breaking the regularity of the palmette ornamentation. At the base of the hilt, applied in gold wire, is a band of continuous spirals within a rope pattern border, thus conveying to the eye the suggestion that the haft is bound to the blade.In striking contrast with the ornate haft, the decoration of the blade, which is tinged with red, is simple.

Ancient Egyptian Dagger
Ancient Egyptian Dagger

Ancient Egyptian Dagger
Ancient Egyptian Dagger


At the top, incised on both faces, is a plain horizontal band, which also suggests a tie, over a design consisting of a diamond pattern chain bordered beneath by two horizontal lines, the spaces between the diamonds being filled with dots. Under this frieze is engraved an elegant palmette with poppies surmounting two perpendicular grooves which converge at the base and resemble floral stems.The obverse of the gold sheath is almost entirely covered with a feather pattern decoration in cloisonne work, relieved at the top by a palmette frieze and at the pointed base by a jackal's head. Of far greater interest is the elaborate design on the reverse. First comes a line of inscription reading: 'The Good God, possessor of a strong arm, Nebkheperure, given life'.

A row of continuous spirals follows and then two loops of palmette design, by means of which the sheath was attached to the girdle. The main scene, embossed in high relief, is composed of the following elements: an ibex attacked by a lion, a calf with a hound on its back biting the calf's tail, a leopard and a lion attacking a male ibex from above and below, a hound biting a bull, and lastly a calf in full flight. Interspersed between the animals are stylized plants, and a more elaborate floral device occupies the pointed base.Although there is no reason to doubt that this sheath was made in Egypt, the decoration of the reverse includes artistic features which have a foreign appearance.

The band of continuous spirals, the style of the rosette on the shoulder of the second lion, the summary treatment of the skins of the animals and the floral motif at the base have parallels in the art of northern Syria at this period and they also have Minoan or Mycenaean affinities. Scenes of workshops painted on the walls of private tombs at Thebes sometimes include Asiatic craftsmen at work side by side with the far more numerous Egyptian artisans; they were very probably employed on account of their ability to reproduce artistic styles which were familiar to them but new to the Egyptians. Like so many other importations in the history of Egypt, however, these innovations were quickly absorbed and given the general character of native products.

Inner coffin of Pe-de-amenemope

The wooden coffin is covered with plaster and painted. A necklace of flowers and an image of the sky goddess Nut cover the section of the chest. Below monitoring records and columns representing gods texts with prayers.  

The wig is decorated with a net. The beard is missing. On the underside of the coffin a djed pillar wearing Atef crown is represented. The sides are covered with texts. The interior was painted white. An outer coffin belonging to the same person is also owned by the Museum of Vienna (AOS 222).


Inner coffin of Nes-Khons

The wooden coffin is covered with cartonnage and painted. The chest is covered with an ornate collar and a bead net depicting the sky goddess, Nut. Underneath are registers with gods. The wig is decorated with the vulture cap and bands of flowers.

On the underside of the coffin is a painted representation of the djed-pillar with the sun disc. The inside of the coffin was painted white. The mummy of Nes-Khons (ÄOS 233) and the outer coffin, both of which are kept in the Vienna Museum, also belong to this coffin.

 

Inner coffin of Hetep-Amun

The wooden coffin was covered with cardboard and painted. The chest is covered with a necklace and a net of pearls with the sky goddess, Nut. Below are registers with the gods. The wig is decorated with a net.  

On the underside of the coffin is a painting on a djed pillar flanked by two standards of the west. Inside the coffin was painted white. The inner coffin is associated with a outer coffin, which is also preserved in the Museum of Vienna (AOS 220).


Inner coffin for Ta-baket-en-Khons

The inner coffin belongs to a group consisting of a board mummy, an inner and an outer coffin, in the region of Deir el-Bahari cache (AOS 6264-6266). The wood is covered in linen, smooth exterior with plaster and parts numbers and solar disks are modeled in plaster. The painting is in the style of the 21th dynasty and varnished.  

The fingers of the lady-in-Chon Tabaket are covered in rings. At the far end of the lower part are two great scenes: on the left a tree goddess kneeling libating for Ta-en-Khonsu Baket on the right side of the grave in the desert mountains.



Inner Coffin of Thuya

This inner coffin of Thuya is made of wood, gold, and silver is gilded on the outside and silvered on the inside. The necklace is inlaid with glass and the pectoral, a large piece of jewelry worn on the chest, below the wig is composed of a scarab.

Nut and Nephthys are depicted kneeling on the "Neb" sign of gold with outspread wings. On the right and left sides we find Thoth, Hapi, Anubis, Qebehsenuef, and Imsety who also take part in the protection of the deceased.



Inner Coffin of Thuya
Inner Coffin of Thuya

Sarcophagus of Sennedjem

This rectangular sarcophagus of Sennedjem was placed on removable sledge runners. The sledge was built with holes in the two long sides to ease moving it from the place of mummification to the tomb.
The sarcophagus is decorated with vignettes from the Book of the Dead, Spells 1 and 17. It is bordered with texts arranged in panels. There are also portrayals of those deities who were in charge of protecting the deceased in the afterlife. The interior of this sarcophagus is painted and decorated with the text and vignette of Spell 18 of the Book of the Dead.

The lid is decorated with vignettes from the Book of the Dead and with depictions of members of Sennedjem's family.






Sarcophagus of Tuthmosis the First

The sarcophagus of Tuthmosis the First, like many royal sarcophagi of the early Eighteenth Dynasty, was carved from crystalline sandstone quartzite.

The ancient Egyptians associated this material, which was quarried near the city of the sun, Heliopolis, with the cult of the sun.

The end facing the viewer corresponds to the feet of the mummy. Isis crouches upon the "Neb" sign for gold and holds the Shen ring for protection.


Nepthys appears in a similar pose on the opposite end of the sarcophagus. Each goddess displays her own particular symbol upon her head above the Khat headdress with the frontal uraeus, or royal cobra.

The two long sides show the four sons of Horus in pairs and the god Anubis. The left side is adorned with the two Udjat eyes. The formulas concern the protection and preservation of the body.

This sarcophagus belonged originally to Hatshepsut after she became the ruler. On the occasion of the transfer of her father's mummy, it was inscribed for Tuthmosis the First and transferred to the queen's tomb.






Silver Coffin of King Psusennes the First

The lid of this silver mummy-shaped coffin portrays King Psusennes the First as a mummy with his arms crossed over his chest holding the flail and the scepter.

There is a solid gold uraeus, or royal cobra, on his forehead to protect him. The face is decorated with a band of gold across the forehead; the eyes are inlaid with colored glass paste.

On the chest and abdomen there are representations of three birds with outspread wings, grasping the Shen signs of eternity. The rest of the coffin lid is decorated with long feathers.

Images of Isis and Nephthys are shown on the lid at the level of the feet.


Silver Coffin of King Psusennes the First
Silver Coffin of King Psusennes the First


Sarcophagus of Khonsu

The sarcophagus of Khonsu contained his two mummy-shaped coffins, one inside the other, and a mummy mask covering the head of the mummy.

Tenons on the long side and mortises on the short sides hold the box together. It was mounted on a removable sledge runner to transport it from the place of mummification to the tomb.

The sarcophagus is painted with beautiful scenes of the afterlife. On the two long sides, the texts and scenes are taken from the Book of the Dead. The short sides are decorated with the goddesses who take care of the dead, Sereket and Neith. They were responsible for protecting the head of the deceased. At the other end are Nephthys and Isis, who were responsible for protecting the deceased at the feet.



The long west side is divided into two registers, or sections; the upper one with the ibis-headed Thoth twice on each side. Two of the four Sons of Horus are shown; Imsety is on the right and Duamutef is on the left. In the middle of the upper register is a scene from spell no. 17 of the Book of the Dead.

The lowest register contains 40 vertical columns of text from spell no. 1 of the Book of the Dead. The long east side is divided into two registers; the upper one shows Thoth twice on each side and two sons of Horus, Hapi and Qebehsenuef.

In the middle of the upper register there is another scene of spell no. 17 of the Book of the Dead. The lowest register contains 43 vertical columns of text from spell no. 1 of the Book of the Dead. The lid is decorated with panels showing 12 funerary deities facing each other and Khonsu with his wife Ta-maket facing Kha-bekhnet with his second wife Isis.





Egyptian Geography

Egypt is located along the northern East Africa. The Mediterranean Sea touches the northern tip of snowy mountains. However, due to the presence of the Sahara Desert through it, the climate is hot and dry.

Egyptian Geography

Ancient Egypt was very different on maps of Egypt that we know today. Ancient Egypt was a great kingdom. It includes many natural obstacles such as the desert on either side of the Nile and the mountains on its southern borders.These characteristics ensured that ancient Egypt was effectively cut off from its neighboring kingdoms and provinces. This has also led to a unique fusion and realization of cultures and traditions that are purely Egyptian.


Egyptian Geography

Egyptian Geography





Four regions of Egypt:


Upper and Lower Egypt


Upper and Lower Egypt present a very contradictory as Upper Egypt is the southern part of the earth and Lower Egypt is the northern part. Upper Egypt consists of a tiny river valley, about 12 miles wide, with cliffs on each side. Lower Egypt consists of the delta north of Cairo. It was the most fertile land from silt of the Nile River were deposited here.





Red and Black Earth


Land red and black, also known as Kemet DESRET and represents the rich black soil of the Nile and the latter, the desert and the parched land.In the west, the desert was home to a few oases, however, is the desert was uninhabited except for minors and careers. These mines were mostly precious stones. The ancient Egyptians were well aware of their dependence on the Nile and the desert cliffs outside their borders.The first cataract was originally south of Upper Egypt, which means that the countries of the South. It consisted of raw water and rapids and waterfalls 800 miles from where the Nile joins the Mediterranean Sea.


Sudan and Ethiopia are considered ancient coins Ancient Egyptian Nubia and Kush. This was proven by the discovery of tombs pyramids in Sudan, although it has not been a part of ancient Egypt, they certainly had trade relations and cultural exchanges.The Nile was divided into the White Nile and the Blue Nile. White Nile has found its origin in Lake Victoria, while the Blue Nile had its origin at Lake Tana is Ethiopia. It is the focal point in 

Sudan.

Length of the river is four thousand miles, the longest river in the world. His lotus has inspired many artists. The Nile and its floods were a source of income for the Egyptians and their seasons were based on the rise and fall of the Nile. Egypt is also called the gift of the Nile because without the river, the land is barren desert.


Ancient Egyptian Projects

Egypt is one of the greatest civilizations of the past. There are many activities for children related to ancient Egypt. With such a huge amount of time, it is easy to find dozens of projects fun and educational for children to go to school.

Build a pyramid is a fun activity for children. Children may have a project in ancient Egypt to construct pyramids matches, sugar, sand, etc. Also children can be given ancient craft project to build a mask of Egyptian pharaoh mummies and paper Egypt on bandages.



There are also some games based on ancient Egyptian art. Mehen, the snake game was played in ancient Egypt before 3000 BC. The idea of ​​the game is to move your pieces around the six snake to his head and bring him safely back to the tail of the lion eats before your opponent. Students can receive a project to write their names using hieroglyphs. Egyptians wrote their names in cartouches, oval containing all characters long. You can write in hieroglyphics cartridge from left to right or right to left, but we must ensure that the animal symbols facing the direction of departure.


Ancient Egyptian paintings were represented on the walls of tombs and monuments. Painters usually worked as teams with a master craftsman oversees the work of several apprentices. Children can have projects to one of these paintings paintings or pull the mummy, pharaoh, jars, ancient Egyptian gods, etc. Children may also be given to projects aimed at understanding the Egyptian symbols. For example beetle that protects from evil. It is a symbol of eternal life. He is often depicted in pushing up the sun in the sky. The eye of Horus is also known as Horus or oudjat.


The magic of the eye of Horus symbolizes protection and wisdom. The eye also symbolizes our ability to see with clarity and sincerity. The Eye of Horus was believed to have healing powers and protection, and it was used as a protective amulet. Ancient Egypt was known for its magnificent beauty, exotic perfumes, beautiful clothes, hairstyles and flamboyant perennials. Children may have plans to make a necklace or anklet with beads.  


There are also ancient Egyptian puzzles for children that are not only fun but also educational. Some of these puzzles are issues where kings and queens were buried, the name of the cat goddess, a terms of how the Egyptians preserved the body.

Ancient Egyptian Prayer

The role of priests in the temples was not pastoral and contact was minimal believers. They were appointed from the classes of scribes and many offices became hereditary, while the role of lay priests recruited from the general population declined and their importance was reduced. Control over the temples ceased to be in the hands of the community. Although much is known about the official religion and rituals, religious customs of the Egyptian people are not as well documented. They seem to have worshiped gods in their homes, perhaps by placing small statuettes offerings before God.

 In the rooms before the houses of Deir el Medina workers have been raised platforms that may have served altars.In the rooms before the houses of Deir el Medina workers have been raised platforms that may have served altars.In the rooms before the houses of Deir el Medina workers have been raised platforms that may have served altars.In the rooms before the houses of Deir el Medina workers have been raised platforms that may have served altars.Bes and Taweret were two major domestic gods.

 Ancient Egyptian Prayer



New Kingdoms, ordinary individuals were permitted to file votive offerings in areas outside of the temples, but the main occasions during which they could approach the gods were public holidays. During these periods, ordinary people could watch the procession of a deity, although it is most often remote and in general the real image of God is not visible to them.
Egyptians asked the Nile god and thanked him for all the blessings He gives to the people, especially during the festival of the flood, or a flood. There were also prayers for the afterlife. Rich Egyptians were buried with larger quantities of luxury items, but all burials, regardless of social status, included goods of the deceased.



From the New Kingdom, books of the dead were included in the tomb, with statues believed to be Shabti perform manual labor for them in the afterlife Rituals in which the deceased was magically re-burials accompanied animation. After burial, living relatives were expected to bring food from time to time to the tomb and recite prayers on behalf of the deceased. There was a guide known as the Book of the Dead, which contained spells and instructions to ensure safe passage through the dangers of hell. Funeral prayers and spells were chanted to the Egyptian gods and a roll of papyrus Book of the Dead was buried with the Egyptians.



The ancient Egyptians also seem to have recognized that stress may contribute to the disease. They established sanitariums where people experience a "dream therapy" and treatments with "healing waters." A few gods were considered as dangerous as protection against them was deemed necessary by prudence. One of them was Nefertoum, ofSekhmet son, whose amulets against evil influences were worn. The attitude towards some of the gods was ambivalent and has changed over time.


Ancient Egyptian Cuisine

 Ancient Egyptian Cooking and Cuisine, ancient egyptian kitchen

The climate dictated the kind of food that has formed part of the Egyptian cuisine. The bread was an important part of the kitchen. This bread has been prepared solely from emmer wheat. At times, barley was also used. An interesting fact is that bread was available in 30 different forms. Called pita bread round, there was also bread was baked in the shape of animals or birds. At times, this bread also included some healthy fillings. This may be appointed to be the first signs of sandwich seen here! The bread was often eaten with vegetables. This included celery, lettuce, cucumber, green onions, etc.

ancient egyptian cuisine





  

Garlic has been used mainly. Ancient Egyptian cuisine also included pulses, chickpeas, cabbage, turnips, lentils and beans. Sometimes vegetables like celery were eaten raw. Fruits also an important part of ancient Egyptian cuisine. The grapes are the most popular among all. The ancient Egyptians also ate figs and dates. Beef, honey, coconut, antelope, gazelle meat, fancy cakes, peaches and apples are also appreciated by the rich of Egypt.
Brewing and bread are two closely related processes in ancient Egypt (as in many other cultures). Beer wort provided that the choke up bread - and leftover bread could go beer with barley ground. It is speculated that the Egyptians were the first to discover leavened bread.
Beer was the national drink made from barley. To improve the taste the Egyptians would add spices and it was usually stored in clay jars marked. Wine for the upper classes was made from local vineyards. After the harvest has been gathered, the workers tread the grapes and the juice collected. Other wines were made from pomegranates or plums.
Cooking were mainly carried out on an open fire with cooking in clay ovens. Egyptians cooked their food by cooking, boiling, baking and frying same food. Sure, some of their fruits and vegetables were eaten raw. The ancient Egyptians also used for baking clay ovens. Sugar was something that was not really known to the ancient Egyptians. Honey has been used as a sweetener where poor dates used as a way to sweeten foods.
Utensils and equipment included such items as storage jars,
bowls, pots, pans, ladles, sieves, and whisks. Most people used earthenware dishes, while the rich dishes used in bronze, silver and gold. All ate with their fingers. Sesame seeds, honey, fruit, butter and herbs were commonly added to the pulp to add flavor.

Ancient Egypt Celebrations

 Ancient Egypt Celebrations and Festivals

Egyptian religion was very ritualistic, involving activities of daily ceremony (complex rituals celebrating the Divine) and regular festivals, celebrations or public, with a predefined frequency (daily, quarterly, monthly, yearly, etc.) molded into a religious calendar, based on stellar (star) chart (planets), seasonal (Sun and Sothic cycle), monthly (4 quaters of the Moon) and daily phenomena (decans and Earth rotation). These rituals were considered essential for both the living and the dead.

Ancient Egypt Celebrations

They also had the death rituals and ceremonies. Funeral rituals practiced by the ancient Egyptians understood the embalming and mummification. Mummies of Egyptians dead were placed in anthropoids (human form) coffins which were decorated with a likeness of the deceased. The coffins were then placed in sarcophagi of stone protection. Funeral rituals are well known, but there were other very important funeral rites were performed, including the opening of the mouth "ritual.


Royal marriages were most likely celebrated with much pomp and ceremony of attention. Kings often married women, many foreign princesses and similar articles, for political reasons. It was also a good reason to give sumptuous feasts and offerings to the gods, and also the exchange of gifts to the bride's father, who could be an important potential ally foreign in the coming days.
Festival schedules tend to list the details of these celebrations, such as the date, the deity honored and perhaps a sentence on the involvement of a priest in a specific fashion rather terse. Fortunately, the walls of the Greco-Roman temples at Dendera, Edfu, Esna, Kom Ombo and Philae provide additional information not included in the calendar of festivals, which enable us to reconstruct the events in more detail. In addition, papyrus scrolls and fragmentary biographical texts reveal fascinating and often hidden details such as processions, morning, noon and evening ablutions of divinity songs, and speeches.


Wag festival celebrated seventeen days after the New Year, has been linked to funerary rituals of ancient Egypt and was celebrated by individuals outside official circles religious, as well as the temples in major Egypt. Opet Festival, citizens of Thebes and their guests from afar celebrated their seminal link between Pharaoh and all-powerful god, Amon, who in the New Kingdom became a god of the state. During the celebration, it was thought that the strength and power of Amun were ritually bequeathed to his son alive, the king.

Ancient Egyptian King Tut

Tutankhamun (Tutenkh-amen/-amun, 1341 BC - 1323 BC) was an Egyptian pharaoh, Rule 12 of the 18th Dynasty (c.1333 BC excluded - 1323 BC), during the period of Egyptian history known as the New Empire.Tutankhamun ascended the throne at age 9 and reigned until his death ten years later, at the age of 19 years. His throne name was Neb-Re-Kheperu, which means "Lord of events again.

Before the discovery of his tomb Howard Carter, almost nothing was known of him, and interestingly, the only disappointment was the discovery of Carter there was little documentation found in his tomb. Therefore, we still know little about Tutankhamun. However, Tutankhamun is, in modern times, the most famous of the pharaohs, and the only one to have a nickname in popular culture ("King Tut").

Ancient Egyptian King Tut



Ancient Egyptian King Tut



Ancient Egyptian King Tut

Ancient Egyptian King Tut

Ancient Egyptian King Tut






Life:

Tutankhamun was not given this name at birth, but Tutankhaten (living image meaning "Aten), squarely placing it in the line of pharaohs following Akhenaten, the heretic pharaoh, who was most likely his father . He changed his name in the second year of his reign Tutankhamun (meaning "living image of Amun, which is actually a reference to Karnak).When he became king, he married his half-sister, Ankhesenepatan, which later changed its name to Ankhesenamun. They had two daughters, both stillborn - their mummies were discovered in his grave.

King Tut was the result of an incestuous relationship and, therefore, may have suffered from several genetic defects that contributed to his untimely death. His mother was one of Akhenaten's five sisters, although it is not known which one. Its birth defects are more common in children of incest.


Kingdom:

Given his age, the king must have had very powerful advisers, presumably including General Horemheb, the Vizier Ay, and Maya the "Overseer of the Treasury". Horemheb records that the king appointed him Lord of the Earth as hereditary prince to maintain law.In his final year reignal third Tutankhamun reversed several changes made during his father's reign. Action has been taken, probably under the direction of Ay and Horemheb in Egypt to return to its former traditional religion.

He ended the worship of the god Aten and restored the god Amun to supremacy. The ban on the cult of Amun was lifted and traditional privileges were restored to its priesthood.Its construction work in Luxor including the prosecution of the temple entrance colonnade of Amenhotep III, including associated statues. As part of his restoration, the king initiated building projects, in particular at Thebes and Karnak, where he dedicated a temple to Amun, decorated with images of Amun, Khonsu and Amunet.

We also know, mostly from fragments, which he built in Memphis. At Kawa, in the extreme south, he built a temple. Pair of granite lions of this temple flanked the entrance to the Egyptian Sculpture Gallery at the British Museum.Military wise, few things during the reign of Tutankhamun. The country was economically weak and in turmoil following the reign of Akhenaten. Diplomatic relations with other kingdoms had been neglected, and Tutankhamun sought to restore them, in particular with the Mitanni. Proof of his success is suggested by the gifts from various countries in his grave.

Despite his efforts for improved relations, battles with Nubians and Asiatics were recorded in his mortuary temple at Thebes. There are paintings from the tomb of Horemheb and as the tomb of Huy that seem to confirm these campaigns, but it is unlikely that the young Tutankhamun actually took part in military actions directly.Campaigns in Palestine / Syria met with little success, but those in Nubia appear to have done much better.


Death:

Although there is some speculation that Tutankhamun was assassinated, the general consensus is that his death was accidental. CT scan taken in 2005 shows that he had badly broken his leg shortly before his death, and that the leg had become infected. He was infected with the most severe strain of malaria several times in his short life. It is believed that these two conditions together led to his death.




Ancient Egyptian Sarcophagus

A sarcophagus is a carved, usually a stone container that usually houses a coffin and an Egyptian mummy. The word 'sarcophagus' is derived from Greek words "sarx" meaning "flesh", and "phagien" meaning "to eat" derived from a Greek word for "flesh-eating. The name sarcophagus was eventually applied to stone coffins in general which were not sunk underground. The Egyptian interpretation of the word was the 'possessor of life' which related to the Egyptian beliefs of afterlife and rebirth. A sarcophagus is a funeral receptacle for a corpse, the plural of which is a sarcophagi.

Ancient Egyptian Sarcophagus




The earliest stone coffins in use among the Egyptians of the 3rd Dynasty were designed to represent palaces of mud brick architecture, with an ornamental arrangement of false doors and windows. Sarcophagi were most often designed to remain above ground, hence were often ornately carved, decorated or elaborately constructed. Some were built to be freestanding, as a part of an elaborate tomb or series of tombs, while others were intended for placement in crypts. They served as efficient external layer protectors of the royal mummy.

The most important process of the funeral ceremony in ancient Egypt was the mummification of the body, which, after prayers and consecration, was put into a sarcophagus enamelled and decorated with gold and gems. Anubis, the jackal-headed god was associated with mummification. In their preparation for rebirth after death, particularly later in the New Kingdom, the wealthy ancient Egyptians might prepare themselves by purchasing a sarcophagus (possessor of life), a coffin (the bound mummy, or "that which begets"), and an inner coffin or mummy board (the egg).

Coffins were styled according to the place where the people belonged. Cities such as Asyut, Akhmin and Thebes developed their own very distinctive styles. They are mostly decorated on the exterior sides and have freely depicted representations of human figures. Single coffins for ordinary people were made from cheap materials like pottery or reeds. There were also court style coffins reserved for the members of the wealthy class. Gold, Silver and Nested coffins were reserved for the rich.

The Sarcophagus of King Tut's was made of yellow quartzite. It contained three gold coffins nested within each other. Inside the final coffin was the mummy of the Pharaoh Tutankhamun. The tomb of Ramses II is massive covering more than 820 square meters. Unfortunately the tomb was subjected to destruction Tomb rubbers and only fragments of the sarcophagus of Ramses II have survived. The sarcophagus of Ramses was decorated inside and out with carved scenes and hieroglyphics from spells taken from the Book of Gates.

The Book of the Dead is the common name for ancient Egyptian funerary texts known as the "Book of the Coming forth by Day". The "book" was nothing like a modern book - the text was initially carved on the exterior of the deceased person's sarcophagus, but was later written on papyrus now known as scrolls and buried inside the sarcophagus with the deceased, presumably so that it would be both portable and close at hand.


Ancient Egyptian Objects

Some of the objects of ancient Egypt in this museum are heads of statues of ancient Egyptian limestone andGreco-Roman deities such as Horus, Hathor and Ptah, as well as Roman terracotta statues of alabaster. Also many pieces have been preserved. The oldest Egyptian coins were staters and tetra Attic drachmas with the same name and the type of Alexander.

The Rosetta Stone is a stone to write on it. The Rosetta Stone is supposed to have been written by a group of priests in Egypt to honor the Egyptian pharaoh. It lists all the good things that the pharaoh was for the priests and the people of Egypt.

Ancient Egyptian Objects
Ancient Egyptian Objects


There were necklaces made from ceramic beads called "tiles." Makers threaded collar complex specialized pearl necklaces. Make a pot made from Alabaster was used to hold kohl. Kohl is a black makeup that Egyptians used to decorate them. If you look closely at the cover, you can see there is a small bump that fits into the neck of the jar to prevent air getting in.


Egyptians were very skilled in metallurgy and bronze used much because it is harder than pure copper. They cymbals you could clink together when you dance. Mirrors in ancient Egypt took the form of discs polished metal, usually bronze. In addition to being functional, mirrors developed for religious and funeral. The handle of the mirror was made of wood, metal or ivory.


Utensils and equipment included such items as storage jars,bowls, pots, pans, ladles, sieves, and whisks. Most people used earthenware dishes, while the rich dishes used in bronze, silver and gold. All ate with their fingers.


There were coffins in ancient Egypt. The purpose of the coffin from the earliest times was the protection of the body, preserving it from degradation or deterioration. A sarcophagus was also generally provided to keep the coffin into the grave. Sarcophagus formed the outer protective layer of a royal mummy, with several layers of coffins nested inside, and was often carved in alabaster.


Hand carved wood and a marble head of a Greco-Roman god are just two of the 200 artifacts that had been stored away in the National Bank of Egypt. "Worlds of objects in ancient Egypt," a book about ancient Egypt is Egypt New Kingdom (1539-1070 BC) as a starting point and considers how excavated objects reveal the complex ways that the ancient Egyptians knew their material world.